Atherosclerotic burden findings in young cryptogenic stroke patients with and without a patent foramen ovale

Authors: Rodés-Cabau, JosepNoël, Martin; Marrero, Alier; Rivest, Donald; Mackey, Ariane; Houde, ChristineBédard, ÉlisabethLarose, Éric; Verreault, Steve; Petitclerc, Marc; Pibarot, PhilippeBogaty, PeterBertrand, OlivierBogaty, PeterBertrand, Olivier
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To further determine the mechanisms of cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack in young patients, we evaluated indices of atherosclerosis in patients <or=55 years old diagnosed with cryptogenic cerebrovascular event comparing those with patent foramen ovale (PFO) with those without PFO. METHODS: This was a prospective study including 100 consecutive patients <or=55 years old (mean age, 45+/-8 years; 56 males) diagnosed with cryptogenic stroke/transient ischemic attack. PFO was identified in 59 of these patients with the use of transesophageal echocardiography with contrast study. The following surrogate markers of atherosclerosis were evaluated in all patients: carotid intima media thickness as measured by carotid ultrasonography and endothelial function as determined by brachial flow-mediated vasodilation. The same measurements were obtained in a control group of 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: Patients without PFO were more likely to be current smokers and obese and more frequently had a history of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Carotid intima media thickness measurements were higher (P<0.0001) in patients without PFO (1.03+/-0.31 mm) compared with those with PFO (0.75+/-0.20 mm) and control subjects (0.79+/-0.17 mm). The absence of PFO was also associated with lower brachial flow-mediated vasodilation (without PFO: 5.04+/-3.39%; with PFO: 7.16+/-4.09%; control subjects: 7.33+/-4.07%; P=0.02). There were no differences in carotid intima media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation between patients with stroke/transient ischemic attack with PFO and control subjects. The presence of PFO was independently associated with reduced carotid intima media thickness (P<0.0001) and increased flow-mediated vasodilation (P=0.019). CONCLUSIONS: In patients <or=55 years old diagnosed with cryptogenic stroke/transient ischemic attack, the presence of PFO was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden as measured by carotid intima media thickness and endothelial function with no differences compared with a control group without cerebrovascular event. These results suggest that an atherosclerotic-mediated mechanism may be involved in cryptogenic stroke/transient ischemic attack in patients without PFO, whereas a nonatherosclerotic mechanism may mediate the cerebrovascular event in the presence of PFO.
Document Type: Article de recherche
Issue Date: 1 February 2009
Open Access Date: Restricted access
Document version: VoR
This document was published in: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 40 (2), 419-425 (2009)
Elsevier Biomedical
Alternative version: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.527507
Collection:Articles publiés dans des revues avec comité de lecture

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