Étude des voies de mort cellulaire induites par les rayons UVB dans les fibroblastes de derme humain

Authors: Gary, Anne-Sophie
Advisor: Rochette, Patrick J.
Abstract: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the solar spectra. UVR are composed of UVA (315 nm-400 nm), UVB (280 nm-315 nm) and UVC (100 nm-280 nm). UVA and part of UVB reach the earth and affect our skin and eyes. Skin comprises epidermis, dermis and hypodermis layers. UVA and UVB lead to both cellular damage and direct DNA damage, mainly dipyrimidine dimers (CPD and 6-4PP). UV-induced DNA damage can be converted into skin cancer-driver mutations. DNA damage repair mechanisms and regulated cell death (RCD) are two mechanisms protecting cells from tumoral transformation. RCD, such as apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis and parthanatos, remove damaged cells. UVR can induce apoptosis in skin cells, while little is known about non-apoptotic cell death following UVR. This thesis focuses on RCD pathways induced by UVB in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). First, possible activation of necroptosis, ferroptosis and parthanatos by UVB was investigated, as well as apoptosis, by use of pharmacologic inhibitors. Our results show that only apoptosis can be measured after UVB irradiation in NHDF, while no necroptosis, ferroptosis or parthanatos could be measured, with or without apoptosis inhibition. Apoptosis is thus a key response in NHDF exposed to a lethal UVB dose. Simultaneously with cell death, a drastic decrease in NAD+ was observed in irradiated NHDF, partly due to the activation of PARP1 polymerase. Secondly, the involvement of RIPK3 and MLKL proteins in UV-induced death was investigated. A previous study demonstrated an increase in RIPK3 transcription following chronic UVB irradiations, showing a potential involvement of RIPK3 in UV-induced cell response. Phosphorylated RIPK3 is known to be involved in necroptosis alongside phosphorylated MLKL. Using RIPK3 and MLKL knockdown, our results demonstrate RIPK3 and MLKL involvement in UVB-induced cell death. Use of necroptosis inhibitors plus the study of RIPK3 and MLKL phosphorylation confirmed that their roles are independent of their necroptotic activities. In fact, RIPK3 protects NHDF from UVB-induced cell death by a non-apoptotic mechanism, while MLKL sensitizes cells to UVB-induced apoptosis. Finally, irradiation regime, i.e. chronic irradiations versus unique irradiation, can influence the cellular response. Indeed, DNA damage repair has been studied in the laboratory and is modified by the irradiation regime in NHDF. Thus, we investigated the effect of chronic irradiations on UVB-induced cell death in NHDF. Cells were pre-treated or not with low chronic UVB doses (CLUV) and then exposed to a lethal UVB dose. The results show that with or without CLUV pre-treatment, UVB induced apoptosis with the same proportion of dying cells. Thus, NHDF cell death response is not altered by chronic expositions to UVB, unlike DNA repair. This thesis establishes that NHDF exposure to a lethal UVB dose induces the activation of apoptosis, without activation of non-apoptotic cell death pathways (necroptosis, ferroptosis, parthanatos), even after chronic irradiations (CLUV). In addition, two new actors of UVB-induced cell death, namely RIPK3 and MLKL, are presented here. This thesis presents new elements that help better understand the global cellular response to UVB genotoxic stress.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 25 July 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/73923
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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