Protocoles de stimulations non invasives pairées pour influencer l'excitabilité synaptique cortico-motoneuronale

Authors: Provencher, Janie
Advisor: Schneider, Cyril
Abstract: Paired corticomotoneuronal stimulations (PCMS) is of great interest as a novel neurostimulation paradigm to explore the potential plasticity of the spinal cord. The methods consist in the synchronization of presynaptic (from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at the primary motor cortex) and postsynaptic (from peripheral stimulation of the nerve) volleys at the corticomotoneuronal synapse to induce STDP-like (spike-timing-dependant-plasticity) after-effects. The body of PCMS literature has investigated its application at the upper limb with only few at the lower limb. The peripheral nerve stimulation is usually electrical (ePCMS) and pairing TMS with magnetic stimulation of the nerve (mPCMS) has never been tested. This new paradigm would have interesting advantages compared to ePCMS: recruits first alpha-motoneurons of small diameters (correspondence with activated motoneuron by TMS) and generates almost pure proprioceptive afferences. After-effects on corticospinal excitability (measured by motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude) were compared between the two PCMS protocols (ePCMS vs. mPCMS) at the tibial anterior (TA: ankle dorsiflexor) in active state for healthy participants. Our findings have shown that both ePCMS and mPCMS are effective to strengthen corticospinal projections in painless intensities at the TA in active state for a majority of healthy participants. For the first time studied, mPCMS has shown promising results for inducing LTP-like effects as its magnitude of effect was considered very large (for responders in Post30) compared to medium-sized effect for ePCMS (in Post0). The factor BDNF genotypes was also observed in our study, revealing different distribution between the two protocols: Val66Vall genotype was predominant in ePCMS responders, while Met allele carriers were more represent in mPCMS responders. Our results support the premotoneuronal origin of MEP increase for the TA preactivated with comfortable TMS intensities. Larger sampled experimentally designed studies are needed to reproduce our findings, to optimized mPCMS parameters and better understand its underlying mechanisms.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2022
Open Access Date: 18 July 2022
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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