Étude des lignines des bois raméaux fragmentés des essences tropicales Gmelina arborea et Sarcocephalus latifolius et de leur devenir dans les sols agricoles au Bénin : effets sur l'aggradation des sols traités et l'amélioration de la production agricole

Authors: Daassi, Rodrigue
Advisor: Stevanovic-Janezic, TatjanaKhasa, Damase P.
Abstract: Application of RCW in agriculture is a sustainable technique for restoring soil fertility. However, the lignin from the RCW, which contributes to the formation of humus and to the soil organic carbon storage, has not yet been thoroughly studied. The general objective of this PhD thesis is to characterize the organosolv lignins isolated from RCWs of G. arborea and S. latifolius and to evaluate the effect of RCW amendments on the physico-chemical properties and fungal diversity of the soil as well as on the yield of vegetable crops (tomato and okra) on two agricultural sites in Benin. The specific objectives are: (i) to determine the constituents and chemical properties of trunk wood and RCW of G. arborea and S. latifolius using wood chemistry methods; (ii) to isolate and characterize the organosolv lignins of these species by the catalytic process and to follow its fate in soils on two sites in Benin after two years; (iii) to evaluate the effects of soil amendments with RCWs on carbon stock, formation of stable humic substances and soil fungal diversity; and (iv) to evaluate the effects of soil amendments with RCWs on soil physicochemical and hydric properties as well as on tomato and okra production on two sites in Benin. The G. arborea species was selected for the Sékou site, and S. latifolius for the Kika site. The trunk wood and RCW were characterized for their elemental and lignin composition. Half of the RCWs was incorporated in the soil, while the other half was put as mulch. The effect of the treatments was evaluated on tomato and okra production. RCWs were sampled after 0, 6, 12 and 18 months of incubation in the soil to isolate and characterize their organosolv lignins by spectroscopic (FTIR, 31P NMR, 2D HSQC) and chromatographic (Py-GC-MS-TMAH) analyses. The results showed that the organosolv lignins from RCWs of both species were of guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) types. Chemical analyses of the RCWs showed that total carbohydrate content decreased, while total lignin content increased as RCWs decomposed in the soils. Significant nitrogen (N) enrichment of RCWs was determined after 18 months of incubation in soils, reaching 2.6 and 1.9 times the initial N content for G. arborea and S. latifolius. In addition, RCWs improved soil water content, regulated soil temperature, and decreased soil hydric tension compared to PL treated soils and controls over 24 months. Furthermore, RCW treatments (RCW and RCW_PL) contributed significantly to soil organic carbon storage and increased soil nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) (the latter up to 1.5 times) compared to the control. The humic acid (HA) was extracted from soils, purified, and analyzed by NMR spectroscopic and Py-GC-MS chromatography. The obtained results revealed that soils amended with RCWs produced significant amounts of HA containing a significant amount of lignin-related structures. Furthermore, using ITS2 region sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform, RCW application significantly altered the fungal composition with an increase in the relative abundance of Ascomycota (up to 92% of the total fungal community), Mucoromycota, Basidiomycota and Rozellomycota. The obtained results showed that RCW amendment significantly reduced the yield of tomato (except at Kika site) and okra during the first crop production and that the improvement in growth and yield of these vegetables was significant only from the second crop production. This research thus demonstrates the positive role of RCWs through their lignin in forming stable humus and promoting sustainable agricultural production.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2022
Open Access Date: 20 June 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/73608
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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