Analyse biomécanique du corps entier lors de tâches fonctionnelles chez des individus amputés trans-tibiaux

Authors: Miramand, Ludovic
Advisor: Turcot, KatiaMcFadyen, Bradford James
Abstract: Between 2006 and 2011, 44,430 lower limb amputations were performed in Canada, a third of which at the trans-tibial level following vascular (90%) and traumatic (6%) conditions. For individuals with a trans-tibial amputation (iTTA), one of the challenges of rehabilitation is the fitting of a prosthesis. However, the use of a prosthesis increases the prevalence of secondary conditions such as osteoarthritis, low back pain, and re-amputation. The appearance of these secondary conditions is associated with an increase in joint stress and asymmetry during functional tasks (i.e., walking, stair ascent/descent, sit-to-stand). The evaluation of these functional tasks in clinical settings is important because they are related to independence. However, these evaluations are limited by the ability to perform these tasks and not to quantify the compensatory strategies. A biomechanical evaluation (three-dimensional kinetics and kinetics of the whole body) would allow us to quantify these compensatory strategies in order to better understand their links with secondary conditions. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis was to analyze the three-dimensional full-body compensatory strategies during functional tasks in iTTA. First, a literature review, up to May 2020, on 17 articles identified compensatory strategies during sit-to-stand and stair ascent, as well as the limitations of current studies. Among these limitations, it appears that the iATT included in the studies are predominantly traumatic and younger than the epidemiological data about the general population. This could be due to inclusion criteria which resulted in the recruitment of individuals with a highly functional level. Then, with regards to the kinematic and kinetic variables used, it appears that the trunk was rarely evaluated during stair ascent and that during sit-to-stand the analysis of the lower limbs is limited to the asymmetry in the sagittal plane. As a result of these observations, it was decided to validate an instrumented handrail to allow the inclusion of iATT with a lower functional level who require the aid of a handrail for stair ascent. In addition, the instrumented handrail gave direct measures of its use. Finally, the functional tasks of sit-to-stand and stair ascent were analyzed with respect to the kinetics of the trunk and lower limbs in the sagittal and frontal planes. These analyses of the whole body in these two planes made it possible to better understand the compensatory strategies of the trunk and the lower limbs and their link with the secondary conditions recognized in the literature, in particular due to the analyses in the frontal plane. Indeed, even if some compensatory strategies differ between the two tasks, increased knee adduction moments, which is considered be a predictor of knee osteoarthritis progression, was present in both.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2022
Open Access Date: 13 June 2022
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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