Développement d'un modèle de tumeur oculaire dans un hydrogel pour les mesures de dose en brachythérapie du mélanome uvéal

Authors: Gros-Louis, Philippe
Advisor: Landreville, SolangeFortin, Marc-André; Bellerive, Claudine
Abstract: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. One of the treatments most often used to achieve local tumor control is called plaque brachytherapy. Despite a low local recurrence rate with this technique, most patients will develop ocular complications secondary to radiation five years after the initial diagnosis. The lack of ex vivo or in vitro models of uveal melanoma makes it difficult to validate personalized brachytherapy plates and to calculate the different dose profiles by Monte-Carlo algorithms. A bioprinted dosimetry phantom representing the human eye containing a defined uveal tumor would be an optimal in vitro model for the evaluation of different dose profiles in the development of personalized brachytherapy plates. In this study, the viability and proliferation of uveal melanoma cells, as well as choroidal fibroblasts and melanocytes in culture in a three-dimensional environment, either a commercial extracellular matrix (Matrigel®) or a printable hydrogel, were first measured by phase contrast or fluorescence microscopy. Then, the expression of markers of proliferation, hypoxia and DNA damage was determined in uveal melanoma cells cultured as monolayer or embedded in Matrigel®, in the future perspective of studying these markers after the irradiation of the bioprinted uveal tumor model using a personalized plate. The surgical evaluation of prototypes of non-radioactive brachytherapy plates was done in order to compare the different iterations with each other and with conventional plates. Finally, the characteristics to be improved for the development of a biological model containing an uveal tumor were discussed, and the problematic technical aspects of the printed plates were identified in order to optimize the next prototypes of personalized plates. My work represents an advancement of knowledge on in vitro 3D models of uveal melanoma and the treatment of this ocular tumor by plaque brachytherapy. My master's thesis could serve as a basis for subsequent projects aiming either i) to elucidate the impact of interactions of cancer cells with their microenvironment on the therapeutic resistance of this cancer or ii) to test new therapeutic strategies on a bioprinted model of primary uveal melanoma.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2022
Open Access Date: 13 June 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/73584
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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