Du paysage génomique à la gestion des pêches chez le homard d'Amérique : structure des stocks à haute résolution et développement d'outils avancés en génomique marine appliqué aux enjeux de la pêche

Authors: Dorant, Yann
Advisor: Bernatchez, LouisRochette, Rémy
Abstract: Fisheries resources are a major issue for Canada. The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most commercially valuable exploited marine species in Canada, which makes sustainable management of this species essential. Thus, effective management requires the definition of biologically significant management units, which requires a rigorous knowledge of the biological structure of the stocks. The general objective of this doctoral thesis is to document the neutral and putative adaptive genomic variation at different spatial scales in order to assess the concordance between the natural genetic structure of populations and the delineation of administrative regions on which the management of the lobster fishery in Canada is based. This research is based on a large sampling design involving more than 4,000 samples collected from 35 of the 41 administrative fishing units. Genomic analyses confirmed the presence of a hierarchical genetic structure dominated by two large genetic units at broad spatial scale, separating the populations on a latitudinal axis into two regions, North and South. The delineation between these two large regions has been accurately identified in the center of Management Unit 32. Within these two large regions, our results based on neutral genetic variation demonstrated a very low degree of genetic differentiation and support significant biological connectivity between the management units. The study of genetic variation associated with environmental variables revealed the presence of substructure within each of the northern and southern regions. Further, considerable efforts were made to develop innovative approaches to identify new types of variants (i.e. structural variants) in this species, which lacks genomic resources (i.e. reference genome). The study of these new variants has highlighted structural patterns, particularly in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, suggesting a signal of local adaptation related to temperature. Together, all of the results underline the importance of studying the various components of the genomic landscape in order to understand the different axes of genetic diversity and differentiation distributed within and between stocks. There search conducted during this thesis constitutes the largest study of population genomic structure in marine crustaceans to date. This exceptional data set has allowed us to develop new advanced tools in marine genomics applied to fisheries management issues. Finally, considering the new knowledge brought by this work, we propose a few elements for reflection as well as new avenues of research to help improve the future management framework of the lobster fishery in Canada.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 13 June 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/73583
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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