Prédiction du décrochage scolaire au secondaire par un score polygénique lié au niveau de diplomation et examen des mécanismes associés

Authors: Brochu-Hamel, Camille
Advisor: Boivin, Michel
Abstract: Background High school dropout constitutes a major economic and public health burden. Genetic factors play a significant role in explaining individual differences in educational attainment. However, the processes through which genetic factors predict high school dropout are still unclear, as they have rarely been examined within a longitudinal design. Hence, the current study aimed to examine how a polygenic score for educational attainment predicts high school dropout via individual factors linked to high school dropout, that is school achievement, grade retention and behavioral school engagement. Methods As part of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD), 674 genotyped participants self-reported on educational achievement, grade retention and behavioral school engagement at 15 years old, and on high school dropout at 19 years old. A polygenic score (PGS) for education level was calculated from available genome-wide association results. We tested a structural equation mediation model in which the PGS predicted high school dropout via school achievement, grade retention and behavioral school engagement. Results The PGS turned out to be associated with high school dropout as well as with school achievement, grade retention and behavioral school engagement. Findings showed that low school achievement and behavioral school disengagement at 15 years old entirely explained the relationship between PGS and high school dropout at 19 years old. Conclusion The results support the idea that the PGS for educational attainement indirectly predicts high school dropout at 19 years old through school achievement and behavioral school disengagement at 15 years old. Taking into account genetic factors in the prediction of academic progress could contribute to enrich theoretical models of high school dropout and to improve screening of children at risk and preventive intervention.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2022
Open Access Date: 6 June 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/73570
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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