L'étude de la multispécificité de la 17B-hydroxystéroide déshydrogénase 7 humaine : une inhibition non-compétitive et sélective dans la réduction des hormones sexuelles et du zymostérone
|Other Title(s):||Étude de la multispécificité de la 17-bêta-hydroxystéroide déshydrogénase 7 humaine|
Étude de la multispécificité de la 17β-hydroxystéroide déshydrogénase 7 humaine
|Abstract:||Breast cancer is currently the most diagnosed type of cancer in women and the second deadliest in Canada. In more than 70% of cases of breast cancer, the estrogen receptor is expressed, and this type of breast cancer is called hormono-sensitive. Expression of this receptor makes cancer cells sensitive to estradiol, the most active estrogen, which stimulates the proliferation of these cells. Different treatments have been developed to limit the proliferative effect of estradiol by blocking the estrogen receptor such as SERMs or by inhibiting the production of this hormone such as aromatase inhibitors. However, even if these treatments greatly reduce the progression of this cancer, other therapeutic targets are being studied to counter the side effects and resistance of these treatments. One of these therapeutic targets is the enzymes of the 17β-HSDs family which, among other things, are responsible for the final stage of activation or inactivation of sex hormones. One of the members of this family that has been selected as a target against hormone sensitive breast cancer is 17β-HSD7. This protein was first detected as a protein associated with the prolactin receptor in rats. The murine homolog was considered to be a 17β-HSD enzyme due to its ability to catalyze the conversion of E1 to E2. It has in fact been pointed out that the involvement of 17β-HSD7 in mice was also in. The metabolism of cholesterol by reducing one of these precursors, zymosterone. A study of the enzymatic function in hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells demonstrated that 17β-HSD7 has a significant implication in the stimulation of these cells due to its double catalytic activity of sex hormones and its effect on the cell cycle. Also, a statistical study has shown that 17β-HSD7 mRNA is approximately 2.5-fold overexpressed in tumors from hormone-sensitive breast cancer patients. The possibility of using 17β-HSD7 inhibitors to decrease the activation of E1 to E2 is strongly supported by the recent finding showing a decrease in the proliferation of hormone-sensitive breast cancer cell lines and in tumor size of xenograft mice. In my doctoral studies presented in this thesis, I was able to show that 17β-HSD7 is multi-active towards sex hormones and the precursor of cholesterol. In addition, I have shown positive cooperativity and specific inhibition of this enzyme. Firstly, 17β-HSD7 was expressed and purified in E. coli bacteria in order to perform enzymatic steady state kinetics and binding studies for the sex hormones. In this study, enzyme kinetics results showed similar specificity towards E1 activation and DHT activation. A similar affinity of these two sex hormones was also determined for 17β-HSD7. In addition, positive cooperativity was observed in these two experiments which may indicate that there is an allosteric site in 17β-HSD7. In the second article, the enzyme specificity and affinity of zymosterone for 17β-HSD7 was investigated. The results indicated that 17β-HSD7 has a similar affinity and enzymatic specificity for all the substrates studied, namely E1, DHT and zymosterone. The inhibitors developed for 17β-HSD7 were observed to specifically inhibit the reduction of E1 without affecting the reduction of zymosterone. In addition, in this study a first molecule capable of specifically inhibiting the reduction of zymosterone was discovered, namely 4-bromo-estradiol. Finally, it was also determined that the inhibitors, INH81 and 4-bromo-estradiol, were uncompetitive towards the reduction of estrone and zymosterone, respectively. In conclusion, the studies of my thesis were able to show the multispecificity of 17β-HSD7 in the reduction of sex hormones and of the precursor of cholesterol. The results have advanced our knowledge of enzyme inhibition, as non-competitive inhibitors can be selective for the reactions of different substrates. The specific inhibition of estrone reduction provides an argument for the use of an inhibitor in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer without potentially affecting cholesterol biosynthesis.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 May 2022|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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