Extraction à l'eau sous-critique des résidus de sciage du bois d'épinette noire : isolement d'hémicelluloses solubles par ultrafiltration et étude de leur métabolisation par un microbiote intestinal simplifié

Authors: Perron-Fortin, Catherine
Advisor: Stevanovic-Janezic, Tatjana
Abstract: Between 22 and 24 million cubic meters of softwood logs are processed annually in the province of Quebec, mainly from black spruce, white spruce, balsam fir and Jack pine trees. Black spruce is beyond doubt the most emblematic species of the North American boreal forest. Spruce forests have been supplying the provincial and national forest economy for decades and remain a crucial resource for the Canadian timber industry. Lumber production generates important amount of wood residues, including chips and sawdust. Those residues are partly used by paper, cardboard, pellets, or particles board manufacturers. Wood and wood residues contain variable amount of water-soluble hemicelluloses, which are hygroscopic and low-calorific compounds of limited value for conventional wood products. There is a possibility, however, to extract a part of hemicelluloses from softwood residues using superheated water extraction techniques. The main hemicelluloses found in superheated water extracts of spruce's heartwood and sapwood are galactoglucomannans, but such extracts may also contain other minor softwood polysaccharides, such as pectin, methylated glucuronoxylans, and acidic arabinogalactans. These hemicelluloses are hexose-rich and easily fermentable polysaccharides with interesting commercial value (for bioethanol production and other non-wood applications). Their extraction is usually beneficial for further wood processing such as pulping and pelletizing. In this context, the first part of this research presents a short literature review of water-based hemicelluloses extraction processes, hemicelluloses isolation techniques and novel applications for the wood hemicelluloses in the food and nutraceutical industry, for which the hemicellulosic-rich extracts could be considered as high-value ingredients. We present the specific parameters of the water-based process worked out in this study to yield the extract containing the water-soluble high-molecular-weight hemicelluloses from Black spruce wood, and we also determine the efficacy of the superheated water extraction when applied on wood residues of different sizes (≤ 4.0 mm, ≤ 0.6 mm, ≤ 0.2 mm thickness). In the second part of the research, we discuss the results of chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis performed on the high molar mass fraction of the extract, along with its fermentability study (30h in vitro batch fermentation). The results of the fermentability study, performed in a Macfarlane growth medium inoculated with a simplified human gut microbiota, indicated that the high molecular weight fraction (HMWF) of the Black spruce superheated water extract has interesting nutraceutical properties. Notably, the fraction was partially converted into butyric acid (C₄H₈O₂) during a 30 h colonic fermentation and was able to inhibit the production of harmful metabolites associated with putrefaction. Among others, the growth medium containing the HMWF of the Black spruce extract showed a 200 ± 14 % increase of C₄H₈O₂, a 54 ± 2 % inhibition of ammonia, an 87 ± 2 % inhibition of isovalerate and an 81 ± 1 % inhibition of isobutyrate when compared to a control growth medium containing prebiotic inulin fibers. Our results support that high molecular weight hemicelluloses extracted from Black spruce wood are fermentable fibers that could significantly contribute to gastrointestinal health.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2022
Open Access Date: 9 May 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/73365
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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