Étude des effets de la supplémentation en graines de chanvre entières sur l'axe endocannabinoïdome-microbiome et ses implications sur l'obésité induite par la diète

Authors: Ben Necib, Rim
Advisor: Silvestri, CristoforoDi Marzo, Vincenzo
Abstract: The shift from a traditional to a modern lifestyle has resulted in concomitant changes in all aspects of life, including the introduction and increasing consumption of mass-produced foods. This change has altered, among other things, the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs), a balance that may be associated with poor cardiometabolic health. Several studies confirm the health benefits of omega-3 FAs, including long-chain fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These FAs may have health benefits by, among other things, modulating the endocannabinoidome as well as the gut microbiome, both of which are key regulators of several aspects of cardiometabolic health and obesity. Hence the value of incorporating omega-3 rich foods that are: accessible, affordable and consumable by anyone including vegans to correct this imbalance and prevent metabolic complications. Whole hemp seeds (Cannabis sativa) have exceptional nutritional value, being very rich in essential fatty acids (EFAs) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including omega-3 FAs. It is also interesting to note that hemp seeds are also a rich source of stearidonic acid (SDA), which can be converted into EPA. In addition, these seeds contain almost as much quality protein as soybeans and are also rich in vitamin E, minerals and fiber. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to evaluate, in comparison to a widely used seed for the prevention of dyslipidemia «flaxseed», the effects of dietary supplementation with whole hempseed on the development of obesity and related complications in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and to determine its effects on the microbiome-endocannabinoidome axis. The overall hypothesis is that «hemp seeds improve metabolic parameters in obese mice in correlation with normalized circulating and tissue levels of eCBome lipid mediators as well as changes in gut microbiota composition. » As a first step, and since our industrial partner had two varieties of hemp, we studied the nutritional and cannabinoid composition of Finola and X59 hemp seeds in order to choose the best variety, from a nutritional point of view, for our in vivo experiment. The results show that the Finola variety has a better qualitative composition in macro and micronutrient, compared to the X59 variety, the most important of which is the omega-3 composition. Therefore, we chose Finola seeds for the rest of the project. In a second step, we evaluated the effects of Finola seeds mixed with a High Fat High Sucrose (HFHS) diet in an 8-week study in C57BL/6J mice, where the control groups were: HFHS, HFHS mixed with flaxseed and Low Fat Low Sucrose (LFLS). The results show that hemp seed supplementation produced a slight improvement in the metabolic and inflammatory profile compared to flax seed and the LFLS control. In contrast, both seeds significantly changed the eCBome by an increase in omega-3 mediators (whose precursors are omega-3 fatty acids) and a decrease in omega-6 mediators, especially in adipose tissue, compared with LFLS and HFHS. Exceptionally, SDA and its mediators were significantly increased in the hemp seed group. In a third step, we investigated the ability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes treated with omega-3 fatty acids or hemp seed and flax seed oils to produce their respective eCBome mediators. The results show that preadipocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with omega-3 fatty acids were able to produce their respective eCBome mediators and that SDA was able to convert to EPA as well as their mediators. Therefore, the endocannabinoidome changes in the adipose tissue of mice observed within the in vivo protocol is likely, at least in part, a direct result of dietary fats on these cell types specifically. This thesis therefore showed that hemp seeds, rich in SDA, could induce beneficial changes in metabolism by altering the endocannabinoidome.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 10 January 2022
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/71441
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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