Étude de l'impact de la température sur le profil des composés volatils des baies pendant le mûrissement de Vitis sp. L'Acadie Blanc
|Authors:||Campos Arguedas, Francisco Javier|
|Advisor:||Dorais, Martine; Pedneault, Karine|
|Abstract:||In the current panorama of global warming, understanding how environmental changes affect the development cycle of vines is one of the main challenges in viticulture. The accumulation of growing degree days (GDD), a variable influenced by climate, is one of the major factors influencing plant phenology and, therefore, berry development during the plant's reproductive cycle. However, little is known about the impact of the GDD accumulation pattern during this period. We hypothesized that different patterns of GDD accumulation involving temperature increases during periods corresponding to different developmental stages could modify the phenology of fruits, the metabolic pathways associated with certain key periods of sigmoid development of grape berries and finally modify the metabolic profile of the berries at harvest in L'Acadie blanc. In this study, we were particularly interested in the physicochemical parameters (total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity) and in free and glycosylated volatile compounds (VC). Thus, three targeted temperature rise treatments (pre-veraison(PRE), post-veraison (PT) and whole season (W)) and a control treatment (CT) were applied in 2019 and 2020 on L'Acadie blanc, using on-the-row mini-greenhouses, in a Nova Scotia vineyard. The berries were sampled at three phenological stages around optimal maturity EL-36 (post-veraison), EL-37 (before maturity) and EL-38 (maturity). The samples were immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80°C. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE). The free fraction was then concentrated using a Kuderna-Danish and the glycosylated fraction was released by enzymatic hydrolysis, then also concentrated on Kuderna-Danish; the two fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GCMS). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as a Principal component analysis (PCA) were performed on the data, using R software (Edition 4.0.2). The total accumulation of GDD during the 2019 and 2020 season was significantly higher in treatment W, followed by PRE, PT and CT respectively. In the present study, in 2020, the W mini-greenhouse treatment increased the TSS content of the berries. In L'Acadie blanc berries, 95 compounds in 2019 and 99 compounds in 2020 including volatile phenols, monoterpenes, C₁₃₋norisoprenoids and aliphatic compounds have been identified. The relative abundance of certain compounds was significantly modified by the treatments applied. The compounds that contributed the most to the glycosylated VC profile were (a) benzyl alcohol and (b) phenylethyl alcohol. The concentration varied according to the treatment to which the berries were exposed: the treatments in greenhouses during the first phase of development (pre-veraison) (W and PRE) showed higher values compared to the PT and CT treatments. These results suggest that some compounds produced in the shikimate metabolic pathway (benzene derivatives and volatile phenols) may be affected by changes in the accumulation of GDD during the early stage of berry development. Monoterpenes have also made important contributions to the glycosidic profile. The total accumulation of monoterpenes was affected by the treatment and phenological stage. The CT treatment showed the highest values of monoterpenes in 2020. About 90% of free VC identified were compounds synthesized from the lipoxygenase pathway, mainly: (E)-2-hexenal and hexanol. However, in the case of our study, they were not influenced by the mini-greenhouse treatment. Our study has helped elucidate the impact of global warming on the quality of the berries of the L'Acadie blanc and also to identify the metabolic pathways that may be affected by these conditions. These results provide a new understanding of the relationship between the accumulation of GDD and the volatile composition of berries in L'Acadie blanc. We have thus demonstrated the biochemical plasticity of Vitis sp. and the possibility of modifying the aromatic profile and biochemistry of the berries. This research project has provided new knowledge for producers in decision-making regarding harvest dates and will help improve the wine quality of berries in northern climates.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||10 January 2022|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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