La cartographie optique des cellules souches induites à la pluripotence différenciées en cardiomyocytes : une étude sur l'implication cardiaque de la dystrophie myotonique de type 1

Authors: Djemai, Mohammed
Advisor: Chahine, MohamedMéthot, Mario
Abstract: Optical mapping is an imaging technique widely used to measure membrane potential of excitable tissues with high spatial and temporal resolution and in a non-invasive manner using voltage sensitive dyes (VSD). Recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been introduced and adopted by several laboratories as a powerful model to study many diseases affecting inaccessible tissues. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an incurable hereditary neuromuscular disease that affects several organs, including the heart. In this project, monolayers of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were generated from a healthy individual (CTRL) and from two DM1 patients (DM1-1300 and DM1-300), in order to study the cardiac manifestations of DM1. The hiPSC-CM monolayers were loaded with the VSD di-4-ANEPPS, and the membrane potential was then mapped using a high spatial and temporal resolution epifluorescence macroscope. Isochronal activation maps were generated. The action potential durations (APD₉₀, ₅₀), the conduction velocities (CV) as well as the depolarization rise times (TRise) were measured. In addition, several known drugs were tested in order to validate the results obtained using our optical mapping system, as well as the reliability of our in vitro model. We were able to produce a cardiac tissue that has demonstrated the same characteristics as native cardiomyocytes to different drug tests. This in vitro model has proven to be an excellent candidate for future studies on the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the heart. The optical mapping of DM1 cardiomyocytes monolayers has revealed a reduction of CV in hiPSC-CM DM1-1300, as well as a prolonged TRise compared to CTRL. DM1 appears to alter the excitability of cardiomyocytes probably by affecting the functioning of various ion channels and gap junctions involved in the cardiac conduction.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 10 January 2022
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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