Characterization and identification of hypotensive, immunomodulatory, and metabolic disorder benefiting peptides from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) hydrolysate separated based on molecular weight, charge, and hydrophobicity

Authors: Abachi-Hokmabadinazhad, Soheila
Advisor: Beaulieu, Lucie; Bazinet, Laurent
Abstract: While, on the one hand, high blood pressure is one of the main risk factors of cardiometabolic syndrome, on the other hand, chronic low-grade inflammation similarly plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Moreover, there is a link between the occurrence of insulin resistance and hypertension consequently initiating type 2 diabetes and obesity. Interestingly, terrestrial, and marine bioactive peptides, in particular fish biomolecules, have been reported as potent immunomodulators and or hypotensive material in the treatment of these risk factors and associated complications. Hence, our hypothesis was that Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) protein hydrolysate fractions possess beneficial biological activity on hypertension, inflammation, and other Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) factors. The aim of our work was to fractionate and identify antihypertensive, immunomodulating and anti-MetS peptides based on various molecule characteristics of charge, polarity, and size. Fractions were produced using chromatographic Solid Phase Extraction technique (SPE), pressure driven-Ultra Filtration (UF) and Electrodialysis with UF membrane (EDUF) under experimental conditions of pH 3, 6 and 9 with MWCO of < 1 kDa and < 20 kDa, respectively. According to the results of our in-vitro analysis the highly hydrophobic fraction of SPE was a potent antihypertensive, 50% inhibition at 5 µg, and anti-inflammatory product, 17% inhibition at 10 µg of protein, among all. Furthermore, in comparison to the negative control (Lipopolysaccharide), anionic and cationic peptides of pH3 EDUF as well as mackerel hydrolysate demonstrated significant pro-inflammatory effects up to 27%. The most potent anti-ACE and anti-inflammatory fraction was rather branched chain and hydrophobic amino acid rich with lesser charged amino acids compared to the EDUF pro-inflammatory fractions. All the identified possible sequences of the same fraction had rather small molecular mass with positive GRAVY values. Selected material, the hydrolysate and positively charged fraction of pH3, however, did not exert any significant anti-MetS effect in hypercaloric diet fed obese insulin resistant rats. In conclusion, polarity and charge of a fraction were the most important factors for immunomodulation and hypotensive activity of Atlantic mackerel peptides. Nevertheless, those factors were not sufficient enough to regulate metabolic impairments in diet-induced obese and insulin resistant rats. Accordingly, understanding the mechanism of action and thorough characterization of bioactive fractions would be required for a definite conclusion and clinical application of the material.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 8 November 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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