Manifestation de la compétence culturelle d'infirmières formatrices franco-canadiennes lors d'expériences de partage de savoirs infirmiers en contexte international : une étude de cas multiples avec méthode mixte

Authors: Gauthier, Myriam
Advisor: Gagnon, Johanne; Blanchet Garneau, Amélie
Abstract: Introduction. Since the European reform of higher university education License-Master-Doctorate (LMD), various international Francophone alliances and partnerships between university institutions created mobility opportunities and international collaborations for nursing educators, students and clinicians. This increase in international mobility has provoked a reflection on nursing educators' cultural competence as a solution that promotes quality and equity of education in international and culturally diverse contexts. To our knowledge, no such studies have been published to date on the cultural competence manifested by nursing educators through teaching immersions in international French-speaking contexts. Purpose. This study aimed to better understand how the cultural competence of French-Canadian nursing educators manifests itself during experiences of sharing knowledge in nursing science in an international French-speaking context. Framework. A reference framework has fostered an anchoring in the science of nursing education, integrating the components of the definition of a competence from Tardif (2006), the model The Process of Cultural Competence in Mentoring by Campinha-Bacote (2010a) and the Relational inquiry approach of Doane and Varcoe (2015; 2021). Method. A multiple case study with mixed convergent-type method (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018) in a pragmatic (Morgan, 2007) research approach is consistent and relevant to the observable and practical nature of cultural competence. Four cases of French-Canadian nursing educators' cultural competence manifestation through four nursing education programs from four different countries formed the case sample (N = 4). Semi-structured individual interviews with nursing educators (n = 18), socio-demographic questionnaires (n = 18), texts (n = 53) and then field notes (n = 36) were analyzed. In intra-case analysis phase, the qualitative approach (descriptive, explanatory and temporal) proposed by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana (2014) and descriptive statistics were used. Then, in an inter-case analysis phase, the qualitative data were analyzed in an interpretive descriptive approach by Thorne (2016). Descriptive statistical analyzes, Spearman correlation coefficients and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, from post training questionnaires with learners (n = 34), were rigorously compared to qualitative analysis to merge an integrated holistic mixed synthesis of results for the entire study. Results. The mixed synthesis made it possible to condense twenty-two internal and external resources mobilized and combined in three innovative and explanatory findings of the cultural competence manifested in Franco-Canadian nursing educators: 1) Commit and be recognized in a nursing university mandate; 2) Resolve the plurality of realities through a Franco-Canadian conception of nursing knowledge; and 3) Establish an environment of concurrent learning. Holistically, French-Canadian nursing educators' cultural competence is manifested in four professional, specific and recurring situations of: 1) expression of the nursing professional identity, 2) confrontation of a plurality of knowledge; 3) negotiating structural conditions, and 4) interpreting historical and socio-political issues. Discussion. This research shed light on empiric and theoretical contributions. First, a construction of a teaching-learning environment in a French-Canadian approach to university nursing education in Francophone international contexts is insufficient to ensure equality and social justice in nursing education. Second, the results revealed that isolated cultural competence implies the need for an understanding of the intricacies of the political and social contexts that influence nursing education in an enhancement of academic programs. Cultural competence is also learned from the potential or proven power relations of the trainers/learners. The integration of the definition of a competence of Tardif (2006) in the conceptual model of Campinha-Bacote (2010a) made it possible to identify a new model to explore the manifestation of the cultural competence of nursing educators in international French-speaking contexts. The results of this study show that the model of Campinha-Bacote (2010a) is quite insufficient for the development of cultural competence in nursing education. They are relevant not only for initial, advanced and continuing nursing education but also for theory and research, practice in nursing education, as well as political actions, management and organization of education and health care.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 11 October 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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