Investigation des éléments génomiques impliqués dans la perte de virulence d’Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida suite à un stress thermique

Authors: Marcoux, Pierre-Étienne
Advisor: Charette, Steve; Frenette, Michel
Abstract: Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids, especially in farmed fish. The economic losses for aquaculture in Quebec related to this disease are considerable. As a result of antibiotic treatments, there is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida. This is why different alternatives, including vaccination, are being studied to prevent furunculosis. Historically, the vaccines used are composed of dead bacteria. However, this method can be laborious and inefficient. This project is interested in the development of live attenuated strains that could be used as a vaccine in fish farms. Previous studies have shown that the virulence of the bacteria can be reduced when exposed to stress. This is explained by the loss of the genes of the type three secretion system (TTSS), which is essential in the virulence of the bacteria. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood and consequently the main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the different genomic elements that can contribute to the instability of TTSS. First, several strains of A. salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were grown at 25 ° C, which is above their optimum temperature of 18 ° C. The results revealed that some strains could lose their TTSS, but others were resistant to gene deletion despite their exposure to stress. Genomic analysis of these different strains identified the presence of a cluster of genes that appears to play a role in the instability of TTSS. These genes are found mostly in sensitive strains and they are absent in refractory strains. This cluster of genes will be studied to create attenuated strains from refractory strains. These strains will then be tested on fish to determine the effectiveness of these strains as a vaccine approach against furunculosis.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 13 September 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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