Lessivage des nitrates en fonction de la fertilisation azotée dans la pomme de terre irriguée et non irriguée au Québec

Authors: Clément, Chedzer-Clarc
Advisor: Karam, Antoine; Cambouris, Athyna Nancy
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) management and irrigation are important factors affecting yield and N losses through nitrate-N (NO3-N) leaching in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production on sandy soils. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the effect of N fertilization (rate and source) on total (TY) and marketable (MY) yields, in-season NO3-N leaching, and residual soil NO3-N (RSN) for potatoes grown on sandy soils under two irrigation regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated). Two field experiments were conducted to compare split-applied conventional soluble N fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium ammonium nitrate) and polymer-coated urea (PCU) products at several N rates during five (2008-2012) and three (2013-2015) years, respectively. The results showed that there was no benefit from additional water by irrigation when water deficits were low. Irrigation increased in-season NO3-N leaching by 52% but had no effect on TY and MY. Results from the 3-year field experiment showed that TY and MY response to N fertilization were not significant when soil N supplied by soil N mineralization was high. However, increasing the fertilizer N rate increased in-season NO3-N leaching and RSN. A single application of PCU resulted in similar TY and MY as split-applied conventional soluble N fertilizers at equivalent N rates. Results from both field experiments suggest that the potential of PCU to reduce in-season NO3-N leaching may vary according to rainfall distribution and irrigation timing due to the N-release characteristics of the PCU. Application of PCU at planting was an effective strategy to reduce in-season NO3-N leaching when there was significant rainfall during the period between planting and hilling. The results also indicated that PCU+urea applied at planting may reduce TY and MY compared to PCU and conventional soluble N fertilizers due to excessive vegetative growth and delayed tuber initiation. Furthermore, PCU+urea increased in-season NO3-N leaching relative to PCU and conventional soluble N fertilizers applied at equivalent N rates. Residual soil NO3-N was an effective index of the potential soil NO3-N losses in the non-growing season, as overwinter NO3-N losses were generally higher with greater RSN. The results indicated that a single application of PCU, alone or mixed with a conventional soluble N fertilizer at planting increases the risk of NO3-N leaching in the non- growing season in comparison to conventional soluble N fertilizers. The overall results suggest that reducing the fertilizer N rate is more important than the choice of N sources to minimize NO3-N leaching from potato production.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 9 August 2021
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/69907
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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