Réactions d'insertion énantiosélective de composés diazoïques dans la liaison silicium-hydrogène et synthèses de cyclopropènes via la cycloaddition [2+1] d’alcynes avec des diazirines en flux continu
|Abstract:||The insertion of diazo compounds into the Si–H bond is a direct and efficient method of synthesizing organosilanes. Various methods employing catalysts, in particular asymmetric catalysts, have been studied in the past. The common issue, detailed in the first part of this thesis, is the use by existing methods of complex and expensive chiral catalysts. This can make the synthesis and use of chiral organosilanes less attractive. This is why in Chapter 1 a green method of asymmetric catalysis for the synthesis of chiral organosilanes is developed, using diazo compounds. This route employs an inexpensive CuI catalyst system, an easy-tosynthesize ligand, mild reaction conditions and which show excellent results. A wide range of chiral organosilanes have been synthesized with yields up to 98% and enantioselectivities up to 98:2 er. To get insight into the reaction mechanism of this reaction, isotopic, competition or computational studies allowed us to understand the key steps of this transformation. The second part of this thesis was to develop an innovative method for the synthesis of gem-difluoro alkenes via an 1,2-desilylative defluorination reaction of organosilanes. This gem-difluorinated alkenes are real synthetic tools, often used in many subsequent reactions. This is why simplifying its synthesis by the 1,2-desilylative defluorination of trifluoromethylated organosilanes represents a real potential. This transformation arises from the possible application to the synthesis of organosilanes via the insertion of diazo compounds into the Si–H bond. The addition of a catalytic amount of fluoride on trifluoro-methylated organosilanes activates the catalytic system that provides excellent yields of gem-difluoro alkenes. Various examples and applications have been demonstrated. This method promotes the use of polyfluoromethylated organosilanes for the synthesis of perfluorinated alkenes. The third chapter of this thesis was about the cyclopropenation of alkynes by cycloaddition [2+1] with the use of carbene precursors. The first part consisted in studying the photochemical decompositions of the diazo compounds and diazirines, using a continuous flow system. The aim was to present a new pathway for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated cyclopropenes. This transformation has shown excellent results with the use of trifluoromethylated diazirines, for the synthesis of new cyclopropenes. Different ranges of LEDs were used to be suitable for a wide range of diazirines. Control experiments were carried out, and comparison of diazo compounds vs diazirines reactivities, and also comparisons of cyclopropenation vs cyclopropanation transformations could be evaluated. We were also able to benefit from the advantages of using continuous flow by allowing us to work on several grams, while remaining safe. Lastly, using synchronous measurements of infrared spectra, we were able to illustrate the presence of diazo compounds during the decomposition of diazirines by photochemistry, allowing us to raise certain hypotheses about the reaction mechanism The second part of chapter 3 illustrates the development of an asymmetric synthesis of chiral cyclopropenes by repeating the concepts developed above for the Si–H insertion. This reaction involving trifluoromethylated diazo compounds has not yet shown satisfactory results. This part is still under study and other approaches are being considered to date.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||12 July 2021|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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