Effet de l'hétérogénéité du peuplement sur les charges imposées par le vent

Authors: Duperat, Marine
Advisor: Ruel, Jean-Claude; Gardiner, B. A.
Abstract: Over the past twenty years, forest management has tended to increase the use of partial cutting in naturally regenerated stands, leaving residual trees at increased risk of wind damage during their first years of acclimation. Widespread in Quebec, balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) is a species known to be particularly vulnerable to wind damage. To mitigate losses in naturally regenerated balsam fir stands, it is important to understand how balsam fir trees bend under wind loads, and to find specific silvicultural parameters to be integrated into wind risk management models. This should help managers mitigate risks when choosing silvicultural prescriptions. The main objective of this thesis was to study the wind loads experienced by balsam fir trees under summer and winter conditions and following the removal of nearby competitors. For this purpose, a network of sensors and data loggers was set up in a white birch-balsam fir stand in the Montmorency Forest (Laval University's experimental forest) for continuous data collection over three seasons: summer 2018, winter 2019, and summer 2019 following partial cutting. An aluminium tower equipped with two anemometers placed at the height and mid-height of the canopy and temperature sensors (air and soil) was installed at the edge of the stand to continuously monitor weather events. At the same time, strain gauges attached to balsam fir trunks made it possible to measure wind induced bending moments on a sample of trees. During the winter, continuous monitoring of the amount of snow on tree crowns was carried out using a hunting camera to assess the additional effect of snow on wind load. At the beginning of summer 2019, a localised thinning was carried out to remove all competitors within a radius of 3.5m around 2/3 of the trees studied. The main results of this thesis demonstrate (1) the importance of using competition indices, in particular CBAL, in modelling the risk of wind damages in heterogeneous stands; (2) the global impact of winter on the increase in the turning moments experienced by the trunks, regardless of the thickness of snow on the canopies; and (3) the local, but also global, effect of partial cutting on the increase in the turning moments experienced by all the trees in a stand, with the most suppressed trees being the most at risk.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 12 July 2021
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/69589
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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