Femmes de/en guerre : voi(es)x de l’engagement féminin face à la violence armée dans le nord de l’Irlande (1968-1998) et en Palestine (1967-2000)
|Abstract:||When it comes to political violence, the way in which women are represented very often betrays problematic, essentialist gendered representations. The idea that women, because of their reproductive capacities, are naturally opposed to violence and inherently peaceful has long prevailed. Unlike men, for whom the use of violence for political purposes has been widely accepted as rational, women are often depoliticized in the event of violent action. This depoliticization of actions then passes either by a privatization of the field of action (from the public sphere to the private sphere), or by a disempowerment of the author of the action (pathologization of the personality and thus of the causes). Even today, this biological justification persists, consciously or unconsciously, tending not only to favor an invisibilization of the political dimension of women's action, but more specifically an invisibilization of female political violence. This is characterized by an almost automatic assimilation of women to the category of "victims." This is particularly the case in situations of armed conflict where this invisibilization is reinforced by what is perceived as a very minor participation of women. Based on the case studies of the Northern Irish (1968-1998) and Palestinian (1967-2000) conflicts, the objective of this thesis is to question this representation of female participation by analyzing the multiple ways in which it has been expressed, in space and in time. Thus, borrowing a symbolic interactionist approach in an interpretive orientation of social reality, we are interested in women's political engagement during armed conflict through the methodology of life stories. More specifically, based on interviews with women who have - directly or indirectly - experienced the conflict, as well as autobiographical testimonies collected in the literature, we have analyzed the processes of politicization and female trajectories during these conflicts. We have done so both through their spatial and temporal dimensions. Thus, it is firstly from the spaces of the house and the street, allowing us to question the traditional dichotomy between private sphere and public sphere, then from the space of the prison, as a closed institution, that we apprehended the female commitment in its spatial dimension. Then, using the notion of biographical availabilities and the concepts of repertoire of actions and political opportunity, we examined women's commitment in its temporal dimension. Together, the two dimensions allow us to put forward the agential capacity of women in times of armed conflict, which is expressed in a complex and entangled manner.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||5 July 2021|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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