Engagement paternel en contexte migratoire et développement socio-affectif de l'enfant

Authors: Bationo, Nebila Jean-Claude
Advisor: Ramdé, Jean; Larose, Simon
Abstract: The overall goal of this thesis is to understand immigrant fathers' acculturation strategies and their influences on their engagement and their children's social-emotional development. Specifically, it aims to: describe the acculturation strategies of immigrant fathers and explore the links between these strategies and the immigration context; clarify the relationship between acculturation strategies and different modalities of immigrant fathers' involvement; test the indirect relationship between immigrant fathers' acculturation strategies and the child's social-emotional development through paternal engagement in the context of migration. The well-being of the family and of the child in particular occupies an important place in our societies. Factors and events that may affect construction and family dynamics are now concerns for the research community. For a long time, the mother-child relationship and the role of the mother in the early development of the child have been the subject of studies and observations. The child's attachment to the mother was then presented as a logic and a norm, while the father's contribution was minimal or revealed much later. However, more studies on the engagement and place of the father in the development of the young child are seeing the day. These studies reveal the positive influence of an early and assiduous participation of the father on the development of the child. Therefore, in addition to the mother, the father is a major attachment figure for the child when he is present in the child's life. However, research that has highlighted the importance of paternal engagement or commitment has had very little interest in fathers in immigration situation. Yet, this engagement can influence the father-child relationship. Through a quantitative research design, we interviewed fathers, but also mothers (especially for the development of the child) from immigrant backgrounds. We also collected information on the socio-emotional development of their children. In total, one hundred and forty-five people (86 fathers and 45 mothers) completed various questionnaires. Most of participants come from sub-Saharan Africa (80%), followed by North Africa and Latin America. They have been living in Quebec for an average of 6 years, most of them are employed and have an annual family income of $40,000 or more. The analyses that follow focus on fathers and children. Our findings indicate that immigrant fathers in our sample have high averages both in their orientation towards their culture of origin and in their orientation towards Quebec society in terms of acculturation attitudes. Per our findings, immigrant fathers reconcile the values of their country of origin well with those of the Quebec host society. The analyses also show that fathers use different acculturation strategies (i.e. assimilation, integration, marginalization, separation), and that these strategies change depending on certain context and immigration variables (e.g. fathers' age, employment status, family income and immigration status). Moreover, acculturation strategies (attitudes and acculturation profiles) which do not remain static have an impact on paternal engagement. Thus, fathers who are oriented towards Quebec culture or who have a profile of integration or assimilation are more engaged with their children. Finally, structural equation modeling analyses show that beyond this commitment, the acculturation strategies of the father influence the socio-emotional development of the child. These actions take place in two ways. On the one hand, the attitudes and acculturation profiles of the father directly affect the socioemotional development of the child. In this situation, when the father orients himself towards Quebec culture, the child shows less anxiety and aggression while the father's orientation towards his culture of origin causes anxiety in the latter. In fact, in circumstances where the father encounters difficulties and has difficulty accepting the values of the host society, he may experience stress and anxiety that he transmits, in one way or another, to his child. On the other hand, acculturation strategies are indirectly involved in the child's socioemotional development. This observation is mostly verified for social competence. The various analyses indicate that to the extent that the father is oriented towards Quebec culture or has an integration profile, he is engaged and his child flourishes in terms of social acquisitions. In these circumstances, paternal commitment acts as a mediator in the relationship between acculturation strategies and the socio-emotional development of the child, especially the formation of his social skills. These findings are discussed in light of previous research on immigration, paternal engagement, socio-emotional development and the needs of the child. The contributions and limitations of this study as well as the avenues for future work are also discussed.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 5 July 2021
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/69513
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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