Penser l'espace en philosophie de l’éducation : l'exemple de l'architecture scolaire

Authors: Létourneau, Marie-Claude
Advisor: Turmel, Patrick
Abstract: School architecture in Quebec is a soaring field: several recent researches and large governmental budgets can confirm it. Unfortunately, the major philosophical reflection needed about space and education still remain to be constituted. This, considering its possible societal, cultural, social and ethical impacts. My purpose is to document the subject in a philosophical way, with the intention of precising which elements have to be considered in order to think about school architecture. To do so, I analyze some governmental rules such as professional competencies, teachers’ obligations and school missions. To structure this huge subject, still “skeletal”, I chose to organize my work with four levels of space (and another type of space). The first level, designed space, has a hermeneutical function: school space must include significant elements and be designed “logogenically”. This level of space also includes ethical obligations: environmental concerns engage us to create sustainable spaces, which are built with a situated architecture, protecting sites and ecumene. Vernacular architecture, which involves dwellers in the creation process, allows a knotworking collaboration that is essential between the architect and all the actors (teachers, students, families, community, etc.). This close relation leads to consider the architect as a pedagogue, and to give him some responsibilities related to the targeted professional competencies (cultural and ethical). The second level, represented space, is about construction of a topogenesis, which uses body, but also an occidental representation of space sadly generalized. This phenomenon requires decentration to “apprehend” school space, liberating it with language and game. With this, I dare to propose a sort of “pedagogical nomadism”, that is to say more informal and dynamic practices. The third level, lived space, uses the bergsonian distinction that opposes the mathematical vision of space to that of a place. I can then consider the qualitative aspect of school as a place, respecting the seven teachers’ obligations and the three missions of Quebec schools. This place, neither completely private, nor completely public, can be seen as a space of socialization. The fourth level, dwelling, is about fundamentally ontological human determinations. This highest level of space is possible using intuition, which creates an immediate relation to space. The esthetical aspect, inspired by Hölderlin, who considers that “man dwells poetically”, leads me to propose school as an artwork, by transposing the four qualities of the musical work, namely beauty, sustainability, teaching and sincerity. The last type of space (vicarial space or nonplace) completes the four precedent levels. It is a partially transversal space, which causes deterritorialization of school. This means that specificities of physical school space, such as critical dimension (which cannot be accomplished by virtual space), have to be recognized.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 5 July 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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