L'utilisation des habiletés de pensée pour mieux collaborer : développement, implantation et évaluation d'une approche de pratique réflexive en formation interprofessionnelle

Authors: Richard, Amélie
Advisor: Careau, Emmanuelle; Gagnon, Mathieu
Abstract: Context Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is now established as a necessary way to provide concerted, coordinated, and consistent services to individuals, families, and communities. Interprofessional education (IPE) is a teaching approach that allows students from two or more professions to learn by interacting with each other in order to improve collaboration and optimize care and services. However, implementing IPE initiatives comes up against numerous difficulties. Aside from the challenge of logistics, various psychosocial issues can arise, including hierarchical relationships between groups of students, communication barriers, and confrontation of professional identities or philosophies of care. One of the most promising ways to address these issues is the use of reflective practice. Reflective practice is considered to be a key factor in the training of future health and social services professionals. Despite a growing recognition of its importance, the literature on the subject is still scarce and the initiatives implemented are often hardly operationalized, theoretically unfounded, or poorly documented. Aims The general objective of the thesis is therefore to develop a theoretically grounded reflective practice approach that is tailored to the needs of IPE in order to support facilitators in their role and to promote interprofessional collaboration and discussion among participants. This overarching purpose translates into five specific objectives: 1) Examining the theoretical and practical pertinence of reflective practice in the IPE context; 2) Identifying the principles and characteristics that should underlie the development of a reflective practice approach in order to ensure that it is theoretically sound and suited to IPE; 3) Developing an IPE-specific reflective practice approach based on the principles and characteristics identified; 4) Implementing the reflective practice approach developed with facilitators and participants in a context of IPE; and 5) Evaluating the impact of the approach implemented on facilitators and participants. Methods The project is based on collaborative action research using a pedagogical design-based research methodology through prototyping derived from the ADDIE approach (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation), which includes cycles of analysis, design, development, and finally implementation and evaluation. The analysis was carried out using three methods: realistic review of the literature on reflective practice in IPC and IPE, focus group discussion with facilitators involved in IPE, and analysis of interprofessional discussions among students in the context of an IPE course. The prototype was fine-tuned following pre-testing. The approach developed was implemented in an IPE course at Laval University in Québec City, Canada. Three different methods were used to evaluate the impact of the approach: pre-post questionnaire on self-efficacy, focus group discussion among facilitators, and analysis of interprofessional discussions among students. Results The project led to the development of a reflective practice approach that is suited to IPE and that integrates explicit teaching of reasoning (deductive and inductive) and use of a number of thinking skills targeted for their relevance to the context. Following the implementation of the approach, facilitators developed greater ease and confidence in their role and learned to diversify their ways of responding to student needs. Students, for their part, began to explore their colleagues' perspectives and ask questions, in contrast to how they proceeded before the implementation of the approach, i.e. arriving at a consensus without examining and evaluating the various views, or exploring the rationale behind the proposals on hand. Students also learned to make explicit the reasoning and assumptions on which they based their suggestions and to build, together, collaborative clinical reasoning that is conducive to a more consistent and concerted response to the needs of the individual. Conclusion Explicit teaching and the use of reasoning and thinking skills in IPE foster the development of collaborative reflective practice in interprofessional discussion. The use of thinking skills enables the members of a team to challenge themselves and move toward a common goal by bridging differing perspectives. The rigour of the resulting dialogue contributes to centering the discussion of clinical cases on the needs of the individual and his or her friends and family
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 5 July 2021
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/69508
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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