Apprentissage collaboratif : analyse du discours écrit d'étudiants sénégalais partant des principes du Knowledge Building et de scripts flexibles dans deux situations éducatives soutenues par des plateformes numériques distinctes.

Authors: Mbodj, Mar
Advisor: Laferrière, Thérèse
Abstract: Teaching and learning situations have been evolving, notably through the paradigm shift towards the learner, initiated by socioconstructivist theories and digital technologies. Today a particular interest is directed on studies related to classroom situations where innovative and complex approaches based on technology-instrumented practices are implemented. This opens new avenues in educational research, especially by questioning technological tools as artifacts for use in teaching, learning and school administration. An important literature on collaborative approaches, centered on learners' written or verbal interactions, has developed in the framework of these uses. In the context of higher education in Francophone Africa, these uses are very limited or non-existent. Thus, the major challenge becomes that of engaging groups of learners in written interactions of a collaborative nature, around complex questions in this specific context in which, as in other countries of the world, they face a pedagogical renewal marked by the adoption of a new system, the use of a competency-based approach and the integration of digital tools and environments in educational situations. This is at the origin of our study, which focuses on collaboration, more specifically on written interactions, using Knowledge Building as theory. Our study is therefore anchored in the practices of the CSCL domain. We explored the interactions and the way groups of individuals produced knowledge together in instrumented pedagogical situations progressively designed to this end. We launched an experimental approach inclusive of 3 iterations involving three student cohorts from 2015 to 2019. Two pedagogical situations were set up and, in each of them, three teams of six or seven members interacted as a Knowledge Building Community (theoretical axis), using the principles of Knowledge Building and also collaborative scripts on two distinct digital platforms (technological axis). Data were collected using different sources and gathering tools. The methodological approach, Design Research (McKenney & Reeves, 2012), guided the experimentation and made it possible to iteratively question each intervention with a view to progressively refine the system. Our study led us to the formulation of an interaction analysis grid, an innovation anchored in data collected within a singular context involving learners with little information about instrumented collaborative practices. The study presents different categories that make it possible to qualitatively analyze, in a similar context, the written interactions of groups of learners engaged in a collaborative process focused on knowledge Building. Our study has also established the need to act on two mechanisms for a sufficient appropriation of the Knowledge Building principles leading to coherent written interactions of a collaborative nature, namely collaborative scripts and written note production functionalities of technological environments. Finally, our study adds to design-based research works focused on the use metacognitive tools that make it possible to act on learners' understanding of the process to be undertaken individually and also with others.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 5 July 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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