Mesures d'affaiblissement préventif du couvert de glace
|Abstract:||This thesis describes preventive ice cover weakening measures that were undertaken in St.Raymond, QC, over five consecutive winters between 2014 and 2019. The specific dynamics of the St. Anne River can lead to massive accumulations of frazil in the downtown reach of St. Raymond, leading to an ice cover that can bemore than 4 metre-thick and formed by over 120,000 tons annually. This complicates the progression of the mitigation. The objective of this project is to identify the best ice weakening approaches and to establish a corresponding application protocol. The performance, cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency of mechanical and thermal mitigation measures were analyzed according to a variety of ice covers. The progression of amphibious excavators (such as Amphibex and spider excavator) is two to five times slower in thick frazil accumulations compared to that of a conventional floating ice cover. Other measures, such as drilling a network of holes, sawing the cover,or relying on a hovercraft or a helicopter to push and break the ice cover, become ineffective in the presence of frazil dam. Any heat input is beneficial once the cover is formed. However, the mean of energy injection affects the measure cost-efficiency: unlike hot air injection, ground water heat injection is cost-effective and can offer significant benefit if the heat load is high. Several different ice-weakening approaches were tested and compared, including experiments from other rivers,to determine their limits of application for different rivers and ice covers. On a frazil dam or ice jam, the spider excavator equipped with prototype floats offers the greatest versatility and energy efficiency. This excavator has the potential to dig a continuous open channel over more than six kilometre-long in the St. Anne River at St. Raymond without being limited by the presence of pools, shallows, consolidated or floating cover, a constraining clearance height under bridges,or dams|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||5 July 2021|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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