Ontogenèse du microbiote chez le poisson vivipare Brachyistius frenatus : transmission verticale de symbiotes microbiens pionniers?

Authors: Boilard, Aurélie
Advisor: Derome, Nicolas
Abstract: In Mammals microbial recruitment starts in utero, something that had not been shown in any other Vertebrate class. The main goal of this project was to test whether this type of recruitment happens in a non-mammalian Vertebrate. We tested in the viviparous fish Brachyistius frenatus the hypothesis under which the uterine pouch is colonized by a microbiome transmissible to the juveniles, conferring them an ontogeny similar to Mammals. This project also aimed to i) characterize the mode of transmission of the microbiota, ii) establish the composition, diversity and relationships between the microbial communities of pregnant females, juveniles and their environment and iii) determine the ontogeny of the microbiota in B. frenatus. We characterized the mode of transmission of the microbiome, explored its recruitment and the contribution of different source communities with a metagenomic approach (bar coding). We targeted the hyper variable region V4 of the small subunit (16S) rRNA gene to determine the presence of a vertical transmission of the microbiome In this study, we confirmed the presence of a vertically transmissible microbiome in the viviparous fish B. frenatus. We documented for the first time an in utero transmission of themicrobiota in a non-mammalian viviparous species. Our results also hint that B. frenatus might be a new model of microbiota ontogeny. This study contributes to the acquisition of knowledge on microbiome transmission and, in the context of evolutionary convergence of viviparity, allows the formulation of hypotheses concerning the evolutionary advantages of in utero microbiome transmission.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 28 June 2021
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/69498
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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