Intégrer le transport durable dans les processus décisionnels pour le réaménagement de rues : application de l’aide multicritère à la décision

Authors: Marleau Donais, Francis
Advisor: Lavoie, Roxane; Waygood, Edward Owen Douglas; Abi-Zeid, Irène
Abstract: The numerous negative impacts linked to the democratization of cars in the last century led to rethink transportation systems and transportation planning practices. Transportation systems should be planned to safeguard long-term ecological vitality, provide basic accessibility and ensure equal access to transport services. This is sustainable transportation. Many actions and strategies were proposed in the last decades to implement sustainable transportation. Redesigning streets in favor of active and public transportation is one of these strategies. However, there is currently a gap between the plans, that adopt a sustainable transportation vision, and practices, that still realize unsustainable transportation projects. The different government levels require new decision aid tools to change their decision processes. Multicriteria decision aiding (MCDA) is one method that is more and more discussed in the transportation literature to integrate a holistic perspective to decision processes. In this regard, this thesis studies more specifically the use of MCDA to improve decision processes linked to street redesigns. First of all, a descriptive literature review was conducted to better understand the evaluation methods that are currently used in transportation decision processes. The two main evaluation methods in the field (cost-benefit analysis and MCDA) were examined according to their perceived strengths and weaknesses, to the different ways to combine them and to their abilities to integrate sustainable development principles in the decision processes. To take into account the different conceptualizations of decision-aiding, the results were analyzed according to four decision-aiding approaches based on the concept of communicative action from Habermas (objectivist, conformist, adjustive and reflexive). Subsequently, a method to develop a multicriteria spatial decision support system (MC-SDSS) to prioritize the streets to redesign as Complete Streets was proposed and applied in collaboration with the City of Quebec in Canada. Complete streets is a popular movement in North America for sustainable transportation to design " streets for everyone ". The MC-SDSS was developed during multidisciplinary group workshops (transportation, urban planning, environment, infrastructure, urban design and public participation) gathering Quebec City professionals using the MCDA method MACBETH. The development of the MC-SDSS was split in five phases: (1) structuring the problem, (2) constructing attractiveness scales, (3) deriving scaling constants, (4) validating the model and (5) producing priority maps. The process has been successful. Indeed, Quebec City has been using this MC-SDSS in the elaboration of its Complete Streets strategy since 2017. Following the MC-SDSS developed in Quebec City, a post-project evaluation framework, specific to MCDA, was generated and applied to the MC-SDSS. The evaluation framework is based on five questions: why evaluate?, what to evaluate?, on what is the evaluation based?, how to evaluate? and who is involved in the evaluation?. The evaluation was applied under the form of a series of individual interviews carried with the professionals involved in the development and use of the MC-SDSS. The interviews were about the development, use and future of the MC-SDSS and were analyzed according to the thematic analysis method. Based on the challenges and difficulties identified in the thematic analysis, various recommendations are suggested to improve practices. Finally, to assess the potential to export the development of MC-SDSS to other contexts, the practices and perceptions of professionals from 11 municipalities in the Province of Quebec were documented during multidisciplinary group workshops (infrastructure, transport, urban planning, environment and geomatics). The objectives of these workshops were (1) to create a portrait of current practices for street rehabilitation and redesign to integrate urban planning, transportation and environment and (2) to identify the issues and challenges of developing MC-SDSS in various municipal contexts. The workshops were analyzed by schematizing the current decision processes and by using the causal mapping method. A series of guidelines is proposed to allow the development of MC-SDSS with the municipalities. Those guidelines aim at easing the development of a new type of decision support system for municipalities, but also at allowing the improvement of current municipal decision processes by better integrating the sustainable vision adopted in the politics and plans and the projects realized by the professionals.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 31 May 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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