Cyclic fatty acid monomers of alpha-linolenic acid : isolation and separation of isomers, and effects of structural parameters on their oxidation

Authors: Mathew, Midhu
Advisor: Angers, Paul
Abstract: Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAMs) from oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (18: 3; ALA) consist of 16 isomers of 5 and 6 carbon ring structures. They are formed during thermal treatments of edible oils, such as refining and frying. Consequently, CFAMs are found in human food. The scientific literature reports the results of work on the metabolic effects of CFAMs, the main one of which is hepatic steatosis. The cyclic isomers of 5 and 6 carbons are formed simultaneously on heating oils and obtaining one or the other, although possible by total synthesis and HPLC, is laborious and in low yields. This contributes to the difficulty of performing metabolic studies in animals with just one of these two structures. In the first part of the work, presented in chapter II, we focused on better isolating the CFAMs from linseed oil, followed by an additional separation into their main isomers CFAM-5 and CFAM-6 of linolenic acid, using a combination of silver ion thin layer chromatography, for the development of the method, and column chromatography, for the production of fractions. Five fractions were thus recovered from silver ion column chromatography with the hexaneethyl acetate-acetic acid solvent system in volumetric proportions 120:30:1. The CFAM isomers of each of the fractions were then identified by GC-MS of their picolinic ester derivatives. The results indicate that fraction F-1 mainly contains CFAM-6 isomers. Two isomers not reported in the literature, tentatively identified as conjugated CFAM-5 isomers, were also present in small amounts in the F-1 fraction. Another fraction, F-3, contained isomers of CFAMs only with a ring of 5 carbon atoms. This fraction also contained a small amount of alpha-linolenic acid isomers. The intermediate fraction F-2 contained both types of CFAMs isomers. The scientific literature indicates that edible vegetable oils can oxidize and can cause deleterious health effects. However, no work has focused on the oxidation of CFAMs and their oxidation products, the CFAM-Ox, or their potential metabolic effects. However, structural similarities can be expected between those of CFAM-Ox and those of certain phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and isoprostanes (IsoPs), and potentially similar biological activities. Thus, the objective of the second part of this work, presented in Chapter III, was to study the oxidation of CFAMs of alpha-linolenic acid. The oxidation of these diunsaturated CFAMs was carried out under oxygen at temperatures ranging from 160 to 200 °C, over periods of 8 hours. The results indicate that approximately 60% of CFAM-5 are oxidized after 2-4 h and that their oxidation occurs significantly faster than that of CFAM-6, and at a rate that approaches that of linoleic acid, also a di-unsaturated fatty acid. The differences observed between the oxidation rates of CFAM-5 and CFAM-6 are probably due to the presence of bis-allylic positions in CFAM-5 structures, as found in linoleic acid, unlike CFAM-6 which contain isolated double bonds separated by two carbon atoms. These results also suggest that the levels of CFAMs reported in frying oils in the scientific literature are necessarily underestimated because they do not take CFAM-Ox into account.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 10 May 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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