Production de verdurettes biologiques : niveaux de fertilisation et biostimulants

Authors: Dembele, Diomiho Monique
Advisor: Dorais, Martine
Abstract: Among the fresh produce that can be grown in urban settings or in buildings, the production of nutrient-rich baby leafy vegetables or microgreens is booming. The management of fertilization applied to organic cultivation remains a major determinant of the agronomic performance of greenhouse crops and of product quality. In addition, several studies reported that biostimulants can lead to higher biomass and improve the quality of several vegetables and fruits by increasing nutrient uptake and plant resilience to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, little is known about the optimal fertilization and the benefits of adding biostimulants to organic growing media. Therefore, this project aimed to evaluate the effect of (1) 5 concentrations of organic fertilization (0%; 50%; 100%; 150%; 200%) for 3 growing media (without or with mycorrizae, seaweed and humates), (2) reusing the growing media and (3) 11 biostimulants (Bacillus pumilus, seaweed extract, triacontanol vermicompost, Trichoderma harzianum, humic acid, CaSiO3, insect fertilizer, frass and meal of Hermetia illucens and control) on 6 species of microgreens. The growing media had significant effects on plant biomass. The growing medium amended with mycorrhizae, algae and humic acids increased the total fresh and dry biomass of shiso, basil and lettuce, while no gain in productivity was observed for spinach and Swiss chard. For chicory, only the total dry biomass was increased. Spinach and Swiss chard had the highest biomass with 200% fertilization, while chicory, shiso, basil and lettuce achieved optimal yield with 100 and 150%. In general, a positive correlation was observed between yield, nutrient uptake and mineral availability. However, the nutrient use efficiency decreased with increasing rates of fertilization. The fertilization treatments had a significant effect on leaf NO3 content, which increased with N concentration. However, leaf NO3 content was within the standards of the European Commission EUn°1258/2011; 2000-7000 mg NO3/kg spinach according to species and seasons. When reusing the growing media, similar effects of fertilizer x growing medium treatments were observed. However, biostimulants had few significant effects on yield and the photobiological parameters. This could be explained by the short growth cycle, added to the lack of stress in the plants. Frass resulted in an increase in the biological activity of the growing medium compared with the control without any biostimulant, but reduced yield which could imply a possible immobilization and/or use of nutrients by soil microorganisms, while humic acid decreased the FDA.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2021
Open Access Date: 12 April 2021
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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