Les champignons endophytes et ceux associés aux caries des arbres et du bois mort de Julbernardia bifoliolata, Desbordesia glaucescens et Scyphocephalium ochocoa dans les forêts du Sud-est du Gabon
|Authors:||Moussavou, Inès Nelly|
|Advisor:||Bernier, Louis; Bérubé, Jean|
|Abstract:||The tree species Julbernardia bifoliolata (Cesalpiniaceae), Desbordesia glaucescens (Irvingiaceae) and Scyphocephalium ochocoa (Myristicaceae) with logging diameters are abundant in residual and abandoned stands because of presence of wood rot. The study of wood decay fungi is useful because of their roles in living wood cells and organic matter decomposition. The aim of this thesis was to use molecular techniques to identify and study fungi associated with decay of living trees and dead wood in these three forest species. Identification of polypore fungi associated with tree decay, logs, assessment of wood degradation capacities, and comparison of endophytic fungal diversity were carried out in forest concessions belonging to three forestry companies of Ogooué-Lolo province in Gabon. Polypores fungi responsible of wood decay were not exhaustive. DNA sequences corresponding to polypore fungal species belonging to Hymenochaetales and Polyporales orders were associated to polypores responsible for decay of trees. Those identified at species level were represented by Amauroderma subresinosum, Fomitiporia nobilissima, Fuscoporia gilva, Hymenochaete murina, Phellinus noxius, Rigidoporus ulmarius and Tinctoporellus epimiltinus. Perenniporia sp. and Inonotus sp. have been identified at the genus level. Most of these fungi have already been identified in Gabon but are newly identified in the tree species of our study. The species Hymenochaete murina and a new species of Inonotus sp. are first mentioned in Gabon. On the other hand, twenty-eight (28) OTUs were obtained from dead wood using primers specific to Basidiomycetes (ITS1F - ITS4B) from basidiocarps. The polypores obtained from logs were distributed within thirteen (13) families, belonging to the orders of Corticiales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales and Trechisporales. Fourteen are new species reported and 9 of them are known at the genus level. Among the 28 species, only 4 are known in Gabon. The diversity of fungi on logs was higher on Béli species followed by Sorro and on logs from the SEEF site followed by SBL. The polypores A. subresinosum and Fuscoporia gilvawere common in standing trees and tree species logs. The brown rot fungus Phellinus noxius followed by the white rot fungus Amauroderma subresinosum (both of rapid mycelial growth) were the most agressive to degrade wood while Sorro (S. ochocoa) was more resistant to wood decay fungi. Data obtained from wood cores coupled with the use of fungal universal primers (ITS1F-ITS4) during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed a relatively high diversity in endophytic fungi in the healthy sapwood of decayed trees and matched to 62 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The genera Penicillium and Pestalotiopsis were the most abundant and common to the three species. Sorro exhibited the greatest diversity in endophytic fungi, while the CEB site had the greatest diversity. Research has shown the different fungal communities associated with tree and wood decay of these species in the forests of south-eastern Gabon as well as the ability of wood decay fungi to degrade the wood.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||15 February 2021|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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