Rôle du microbiote intestinal dans l’altération de l’homéostasie immunitaire par la phospholipase A2 de groupe IIA

Authors: Doré, Etienne
Advisor: Boilard, Éric
Abstract: The mammalian digestive tract harbors trillions of microorganisms that collectively form the intestinal microbiota. This flora has been shown to play a prominent role in the development and homeostasis of the immune system. As such, its alteration was associated with a wide array of inflammatory diseases with intestinal and systemic afflictions. However, the cause of this unbalance remains poorly understood. While the intestinal flora may be regulated by a large number of environmental factors, multiple endogenous intestinal enzymes have been shown or proposed to play an important part in the shaping of its composition. One of those enzymes, the secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), possesses great bactericidal properties and is overexpressed during multiple inflammatory disorders. We hypothesized that the overexpression of sPLA2-IIA in the intestine during inflammatory processes could alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of those diseases. To verify this hypothesis, we used transgenic mice overexpressing the human sPLA2- IIA (sPLA2-IIATGN) and observed a yet uncharacterized spontaneous immune disorder in this model. We aimed to evaluate the impact of sPLA2-IIA on the intestinal flora in this model. We identified multiple alterations in the microbiome of sPLA2-IIATGN mice. Our results also suggest that the environment, and more specifically the intestinal microbiota, play a prominent role in the development of this immune disorder. Our results suggest that the modulation of systemic inflammation by sPLA2-IIA is dependent upon the intestinal flora.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 12 October 2020
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/66779
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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