Apprentissage faiblement supervisé appliqué à la segmentation d'images de protéines neuronales

Authors: Bilodeau, Anthony
Advisor: De Koninck, Paul; Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie
Abstract: In cell biology, optical microscopy is commonly used to visualize and characterize the presenceand morphology of biological structures. Following the acquisition, an expert will have toannotate the structures for quantification. This is a difficult task, requiring many hours ofwork, sometimes repetitive, which can result in annotation errors caused by labelling fatigue.Machine learning promises to automate complex tasks from a large set of annotated sampledata. My master’s project consists of using weakly supervised techniques, where the anno-tations required for training are reduced and/or less precise, for the segmentation of neuralstructures.I first tested the use of polygons delimiting the structure of interest for the complex taskof segmentation of the neuronal protein F-actin in super-resolution microscopy images. Thecomplexity of the task is supported by the heterogeneous morphology of neurons, the highnumber of instances to segment in an image and the presence of many distractors. Despitethese difficulties, the use of weak annotations has made it possible to quantify an innovativechange in the conformation of the F-actin protein as a function of neuronal activity. I furthersimplified the annotation task by requiring only binary labels that indicate the presence ofstructures in the image, reducing annotation time by a factor of 30. In this way, the algorithmis trained to predict the content of an image and then extract the semantic characteristicsimportant for recognizing the structure of interest using attention mechanisms. The segmen-tation accuracy obtained on F-actin images is higher than that of polygonal annotations andequivalent to that of an expert’s precise annotations. This new approach should facilitate thequantification of dynamic changes that occur under the microscope in living cells and reduceerrors caused by inattention or bias in the selection of regions of interest in microscopy images.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 7 July 2020
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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