State of the science in women's cardiovascular disease : a Canadian perspective on the influence of sex and gender

Authors: Norris, C. M. (Colleen M.); Yip, Cindy Ying Yin; Nerenberg, Kara; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pacheco, Christine; Foulds, Heather; Hardy, Marsha; Gonsalves, Christine A.; Jaffer, Shahin; Parry, Monica J. E. (Monica Joan Eleanor); Colella, Tracey; Dhukai, Abida; Grewal, Jasmine; Price, Jennifer A. D. (Jennifer Anne Devereaux); Levinsson, Anna; Hart, Donna; Harvey, Paula J.; Van Spall, Hariette; Sarfi, Hope; Sedlak, Tara; Ahmed, Sofia; Baer, Carolyn; Coutinho, Thais; Edwards, Jodi; Green, Courtney R.; Kirkham, Amy A.; Srivaratharajah, Kajenny; Dumanski, Sandra; Keeping‐Burke, Lisa; Lappa, Nadia; Reid, Robert D.; Robert, Helen; Smith, Graeme Neil; Martin‐Rhee, Michelle; Mulvagh, Sharon
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death for women in Canada.1 Although it has long been recognized that estrogen impacts vascular responses in women, there is emerging evidence that physiologic and pathophysiologic cardiovascular responses are uniquely affected across the spectrum of a woman's life. Despite a global understanding that manifestations and outcomes of CVD are known to differ between men and women, uptake of the recognition of sex and gender influences on the clinical care of women has been slow or absent.2 To highlight the need for better research, diagnosis, treatment, awareness, and support of women with CVD in Canada, the Canadian Women's Heart Health Alliance (CWHHA), supported by the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, and in collaboration with the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (HSFC), undertook a comprehensive review of the evidence on sex‐ and gender‐specific differences in comorbidities, risk factors, disease awareness, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment across the entire spectrum of CVD. The intent of this review was not to directly compare women and men on epidemiological and outcome measures of CVD, but to synthesize the state of the evidence for CVD in women and identify significant knowledge gaps that hinder the transformation to clinical practice and care that is truly tailored for women, a significant health challenge that has only been recognized in Canada relatively recently. This review highlights the scarcity of Canadian data on CVD in women as part of the ongoing struggle to increase awareness of and improve outcomes for women with CVD. Because of a paucity of published Canada‐specific evidence, the purpose of this review is to provide an infrastructure to summarize world‐wide published evidence, including knowledge gaps that must be understood to then make effective recommendations to alleviate the glaring “unders” of CVD for women in Canada: under‐aware, under‐diagnosed and under‐treated, under‐researched, and under‐support.
Document Type: Article de recherche
Issue Date: 17 February 2020
Open Access Date: 11 May 2020
Document version: AM
This document was published in: Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 4 (9), 1-8 (2020)
Alternative version: 10.1161/JAHA.119.015634
Collection:Articles publiés dans des revues avec comité de lecture

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