Modèles agro-environnementaux de la fertilisation phosphatée dans les sols acides de pomme de terre de l'Est du Canada

Authors: Benjannet, Rim
Advisor: Khiari, LotfiNyiraneza, Judith
Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is essential for potatoes, the main crop in the Canadian eastern provinces. The depletion of phosphate reserves and the risk of loss of this element in watercourses are major constraints for food security and for environment. The objective of this study is to optimize the rate and type of phosphate fertilizer in order to minimize the risk of P accumulation in the soil, and to substitute synthetic fertilizers with recycled ones. A total of 141 soil samples representative of Prince Edward Island (PEI) soils were first analyzed. It have been shown that soil acidity greatly influenced P soil saturation percentage. Thus, critical thresholds in terms of P saturation index, (P/Al)M3, were 19% for very acid soils (pHwater <5.5), and 14% for less acidic soils (pHwater>5.5), above which P fertilization should be limited to the crop’s requirement. Six environmental risk classes were identified and their spatial distribution showed that the moderate risk class was predominant in PEI. We then developed an agro-environmental model of P for potato based on 42 fertilization trials conducted in the Maritime provinces (PEI, New Brunswick (NB) and Nova Scotia (NS)). This model, based on the (P/Al)M3 index, was composed of seven fertility and environmental risk classes: (0-2.5%), (2.5%-5%), (5%-10%), (10%-14%), (14%-16%), (16%-23%) and (P/Al)M3>23% corresponding, respectively, to the optimal P rates of 105, 81, 70 kg P ha-1 for the first three classes, and to a P rate of 21 kg ha-1 for classes with (P/Al)M3 greater than 10%. Finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of a recycled P fertilizer (Crystal Green®), we conducted 8 fertilization trials in Quebec and in the Maritime provinces. It was concluded that P fertilization with Crystal Green® could substitute triple superphosphate (TSP) up to 75% without noticing any significant decrease in potato yield levels, P uptake, and P status in the soil and in the plant.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 13 March 2020
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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