Étude du dynamisme et de l'évolution des réseaux d'interactions protéiques par une approche de protéomique comparative

Authors: Berger, Caroline
Advisor: Landry, Christian
Abstract: A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how the information contains in the genotype can be transmitted to the phenotype. Hybrids, that are the result of the cross between different species, represent a unique opportunity to investigate the link between genotype and phenotype. Hybridization can lead to extreme phenotypes (such as heterosis or underdominance) and many studies try to understand the genetic bases of these phenotypes. However, there is a real gap in our understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype in hybrids. Our hypothesis was that protein complexes would play a key role and that hybridization would lead to changes in the organisation of protein complexes. To test this hypothesis, we used a method (SEC-PCP-SILAC) that allows studying broadly protein complexes in the cell. Hybrids between yeast species were generated in the laboratory and SEC-PCP-SILAC was applied to compare the protein complexes of the hybrids with their parental species. We were able to detect a large fraction of the interactome with the identification of 39% of the protein complexes reported in yeast. Our results highlight the general robustness of the protein complexes after hybridization. However, some significant changes of the interaction networks were also detected in hybrids. These modifications involve two main biological pathways: the glucose synthesis pathway and the ribosomal activity pathway. They are promising candidates to explain the phenotypic differences between hybrids and parents. Finally, a complementary PCA approach was used to complement the mass-spectrometry data and we demonstrated the presence of both parental (within species) and chimeric (between species) interactions. This thesis emphasizes the importance to use an integrative approach for a better understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 7 March 2020
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/38219
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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