Métagénomique, culturomique et sélectomique recombinante pour la caractérisation de gènes de résistance aux antibiotiques dans le microbiote intestinal humain

Authors: Brochu, Eliel
Advisor: Bergeron, Michel G.Huletsky, Ann
Abstract: The human intestinal microbiota is an important and poorly known antibiotic resistance genes reservoir. In this study, we explored resistance genes from the microbiota of healthy volunteers before and after exposure to the β-lactam cefprozil antibiotic. Three approaches were used to characterise resistance genes in the human microbiota and examine alteration by antimicrobials: metagenomics, culturomics and recombinant selectomics. Metagenomic and culturomic sequencing of intestinal microbiota enabled identification of several genes for resistance to β-lactams and other antibiotics. However, culturomics allowed identification of these genes in more participants than metagenomics. Culturomics highlighted the presence of the clinically important vancomycin resistance vanD-like genes in the microbiota of about 46% of participants compared to 8% with metagenomics. Culturomics also showed that in vitro and in vivo β-lactams exposition stimulates the emergence of vanD genes. Recombinant selectomics, which is based on the construction of expression libraries made with bacterial DNA, was also used to functionally characterise β-lactam resistance genes from the cultivable intestinal bacteria. It allowed identification and characterisation of five different β-lactamases including two with an extended-spectrum activity. The majority of β-lactamases genes was associated with other resistance genes and/or mobile elements. This study demonstrated that culture favors the identification of genes undetected by direct metagenomic sequencing and selectomics was a powerful tool to characterise gene functions. It also demonstrated that intake of a commonly used antibiotic of the β-lactam family can influence the abundance of bacteria containing resistance genes to an antibiotic from another class, such as vancomycin, which is a last resort antibiotic.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 15 February 2020
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/38129
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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