Rôle des hormones thyroïdiennes sur le développement neurologique des circuits cardio-respiratoires chez le rongeur
|Abstract:||Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the central nervous system. The latter presents a high vulnerability to any thyroid hormones deficiency, especially in the early stages of perinatal development, when the mother is the only source for the foetus. At that time, any maternal hypothyroidism or premature birth can alter thyroid hormones supply and compromise brain functions on short and long term. Despite the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on the development and function of the central nervous system, their influence on the nervous circuits that regulate the cardiorespiratory system remains unknown. We propose that thyroid hormones during the perinatal period are necessary for the proper development of the neural network responsible for cardiorespiratory control. To test this hypothesis, we reproduced a model of experimental hypothyroidism by exposing the pregnant dams over the entire gestation to the anti-thyroid agent, methimazole (MMI). Effects of the treatment were evaluated on central respiratory command, ventilation, hypoxic response and cardiorespiratory inhibition by laryngeal chemoreflex stimulation, across multiple age groups (P1-P4-P15). MMI treatment reduces the central respiratory rhythm in the first days of life. An age-dependent effect was noted on whole animal ventilation and hypoxic response. Cardiorespiratory inhibition following laryngeal chemoreflex stimulation is increased in thyroid hormones deficient pups. The enhanced GABAergic system activation is a major player in the consequences observed here. Finally, we proposed that microglia could modulate development of the neuronal respiratory control network in response to thyroid hormones. Using cell culture, we demonstrated that their functions are increased by the exposure to T3 and the effect is mediated by the surrounding microenvironment. We conclude that thyroid hormones are necessary for the proper establishment of the respiratory and autonomic nervous control systems.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||14 February 2020|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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