Variabilité génétique, moléculaire et quantitative du Tilapia du Nil (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) dans le bassin du Congo

Authors: Adoumandjali, Gratien
Advisor: Bernatchez, Louis; Khasa, Damase P.
Abstract: In this PhD thesis work, two objectives were pursued: i) to assess the genetic structure of Nile tilapia populations (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) in order to guide management strategies at the sub-regional scale; region; ii) and assess the heritability of the growth traits in order to consider a genetic improvement of the species. In order to determine the genetic structuring of Nile tilapia in the Congo Basin using recent GBS-type genomic tools, 13,792 neutral SNPs were identified from 438 Nile tilapias collected in Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. The presence of distinct genetic groupings was elucidated by the Bayesian clustering method implemented in the Admixture program run using 2000 bootstraps with a number of groups (K) ranging from 1 to 14. The estimation of potential gene flow between sites, was performed using Treemix software and peer paired degree evaluation between two individuals from the same site or ecosystem (using kinship or relatedness indices, AJK), by vcftools. The assesment of the heritability of Nile tilapia growth traits was performed using data from 660 fish grown in hapas placed in a pond between 185 and 209 days of experience. The body mass and standard-length measurements were taken in situ while the condition factor was deduced using the Fulton formula. Determining morphology-related data was obtained by generalized Procrustes analysis. An analysis using the mixed animal model was applied to these morphometric traits to estimate the different components of genetic and environmental variances from which the heritability of each trait, the effects of environmental factors and the genetic correlations between traits were derived. The results of the structural analysis on the 13,792 neutral markers revealed the existence of a genetic structure highlighted with the identification of 5 genetically different populations (average Fst = 0.079, CI: 0.073 to 0.086, P-value = 0.001). This study shows that there has been gene flow between some sites and that there are fewer inbred individuals in the rivers and lakes while fish farmers have been more consanguineous.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 14 February 2020
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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