Rôle du métabolisme carboné dans la modulation des relations source-puits et études des facteurs impliqués dans l'induction de la sénescence foliaire chez une éphémère printanière (Erythronium americanum)
|Advisor:||Lapointe, Line; Gérant, Dominique|
|Abstract:||Some geophytes such as spring ephemerals are known to grow better at lower temperatures, which results in larger underground perennial organs. A lower temperature induces a longer leaf life span, which allows the plant to fix more carbon. This extra carbon is allocated to the bulb and invested mostly as storage (starch) form, thus increasing the amount of reserves found in cool compared to higher temperature grown plants. Previous works suggested that such increased growth at low temperature is related to a better equilibrium between source and sink activities. In this study, we wanted to deepen our understanding of the intrinsic factors that influence the growth of reserve organs in geophytes and to explain the strong growth observed at low temperature in these species. We also attempted to identify the signaling pathways that induce leaf senescence when the sink organ is filled with starch, using a metabolomic approach and a phytohormonal profiling. The species studied, yellow trout-lily (Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl.), was grown at three temperature regimes: 8/6 °C, 12/8 °C et 18/14 °C (day/night). Respiratory rates at both the leaf and bulb levels were measured at the respective growth temperatures and at a common temperature in order to test our hypothesis that dark respiration acclimates to growth temperature, mainly via the alternative pathway, as a means of reducing the source−sink imbalance. The different non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and structural carbohydrates (SC) in the bulb were qualitatively and quantitatively determined, which allowed us to verify if the plants could adjust their carbon partitioning between different compounds (NSC vs. SC) once the cells are filled with starch. We also characterized phytohormones and metabolites, especially those closely associated with the phenological stages that precede senescence, to identify the signaling pathways that establish the link between the decrease of sink strength and the induction of leaf senescence in this species. Homeostasis of leaf respiration combined with lower assimilation in cool-grown plants suggests that these plants can reduce the amount of carbon available for translocation to the bulb to maintain a better balance between source and sink activities over a longer period. Bulb respiration can be stimulated as sink limitation builds up, likely in response to source–sink imbalance. A preferential carbon partitioning into cell wall compounds was found in warm-grown plants once the cells were filled with starch. Such adjustment of C between NSC and SC could represent an effective way to maintain the sink strength under warm temperature at least for a few more days. Some phytohormones and metabolites appear to pay a role in triggering leaf senescence, but many are specific to one organ or specific to a temperature regime. Increased levels of cytokinins during the mature leaf stage and into the senescence stage might counteract the increasing abundance of soluble sugars at least for a while, and thus avoid inducing an early leaf senescence. We have also pointed out five metabolites that could potentially serve as general signaling factors to induce leaf senescence, namely 2-O-glycerol-β-D-galactopyranoside, mannose, fructose, sorbose and maltose. This study has helped us better characterize the signaling pathways that associate the decrease in sink strength with the induction of leaf senescence. It also improve our understanding of the thermal acclimation of this species. We may ultimately conclude that this sink-limited spring geophyte seems to be able to differentially modulate its sink strength under different growth temperatures in order to avoid early leaf senescence in situations of source–sink imbalances.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 February 2020|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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