Le rôle des métabolites dérivés de la diète sur la santé cardiométabolique : la contribution des acides aminés à chaîne ramifiée et des polyphénols

Authors: Rousseau, Michèle
Advisor: Vohl, Marie-Claude
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome (MS), precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, is a major burden for the health system in developed countries. These diseases have in common that oxidative stress is believed to contribute to their development. Moreover, their progression can be modulated by diet, which is source of pro- and anti-oxidant foods. Longitudinal studies have for a long time considered meat consumption to be rather harmful for health, while that of fruits is thought to be beneficial. Meat is the main dietary source of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which plasma levels are reported to be elevated in insulin resistant individuals or ones presenting the MS. Data from 197 individuals with various adiposity values with or without MS from the INFOGENE cohort were examined to assess whether the consumption of animal or vegetal protein or that of red meat and other main protein food sources were correlates of plasma BCAA levels. The relationship between these food groups and by-products of BCAAs catabolism, the acylcarnitines (AC) C3 and C5, was subsequently investigated. While a strong association between overweight status and MS and plasma BCAA or C3 and C5 ACs was observed, dietary animal protein and red meat only had a modest association overall with plasma BCAA levels. Thus, these results suggest that intakes of these foods would not be the main contributor to the increase of plasma BCAAs and C3 and C5 ACs levels. For their part, several animal studies highlighted the potential of blueberries at improving cardiometabolic health. Their high antioxidant content would underlie these findings. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial on 49 adults assigned to the daily consumption of 50 g of blueberry (BBP) or placebo powder (PP) for 8 weeks was conducted to test if this supplementation positively impacted blood pressure, lipid profile or insulin resistance of participants. Comparing data collected at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks and between BBP and PP groups, no improvement in these parameters was observed. These results suggest that the consumption of a powder equivalent to 2.3 cups of blueberries did not improve the cardiometabolic profile of individuals at risk of developing MS. The benefits reported in animal studies therefore remain to be further investigated in humans.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2020
Open Access Date: 11 February 2020
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/38067
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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