Interconnexion du métabolisme cellulaire et de la voie de glucuronidation

Authors: Audet-Delage, Yannick
Advisor: Guillemette, Chantal
Abstract: The glucuronidation pathway, catalyzed by uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), is crucial for drug metabolism and controls the body’s exposure to several exogenous compounds by the conjugation of a glucuronic acid moiety leading to their inactivation. A main role for this pathway is also to controls cellular levels of several endogenous compounds in order to maintain homeostasis. Many of those compounds are involved in feedback loops and control the expression and activity of numerous metabolic pathways through the regulation of nuclear receptors and other signaling events. Altered expression or activity of the glucuronidation pathway thus has the potential to influence cellular metabolism, beyond UGT substrate regulation. This hypothesis is supported by preliminary observations showing that UGTs possess the capacity to interact with enzymes from other metabolic pathways, affecting their activity. Furthermore, recent studies from our laboratory exposed an extended transcriptome for UGT genes, producing new alternative proteins comprising new domains and for which the functions and interaction networks remain unknown. In the context of this work, our first investigations explored the metabolic alterations induced by a modification in the cellular levels of UGT enzymes, as well as selected novel alternative proteins. A non-targeted metabolomics approach uncovered significant metabolic alterations, sometimes common or divergent, depending on the enzyme and the alternative isoform. As an example, bioactive lipids such as arachidonic acid were among the most modulated metabolites in lysates of cells expressing UGT enzymes but remained unchanged in cells expressing alternate proteins. In a second set of investigations, we established the interaction networks of UGT proteins in human liver and kidney tissues. We used in-house antibodies directed against UGT enzymes or their alternative proteins to conduct affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. These assays exposed an unbiased endogenous interactome in a physiologically relevant protein environment, revealing common and specific partners to UGT enzymes and alternative isoforms. In addition to proteins involved in drug metabolism, our work uncovered numerous partners implicated in other metabolic routes such as energetic pathways (glycolysis, tricarboxylic acids cycle, lipid oxidation, etc.). Using cellular models, we showed some of these interactions had a functional impact on cellular activity of the protein partners, triggering metabolic alterations associated with tumor progression. Lastly, our data further support a differential expression of UGT enzymes and their alternative isoforms following treatment with pharmacological compounds that could lead to variable metabolic activity in response to stimuli. Our results demonstrate functional crosstalk between UGT proteins and cell metabolism. This works also supports an extended and rather complex role for UGTs, notably through the production of numerous alternative isoforms presenting different peptide structures and likely diverse regulatory functions. Our findings indicate that one of the underlying mechanisms is related to protein-protein interactions between UGTs and proteins of other metabolic routes, likely permitting a fine regulation of cell response to stimuli while optimizing metabolic resources.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 10 January 2020
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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