Impact de fonte tardive ou hâtive de neige et de glace sur l'export de microalgues dans la mer de Beaufort
|Advisor:||Fortier, Louis; Tremblay, Jean-Éric|
|Abstract:||Microalgal cells collected in sediment traps deployed at three sites in the Beaufort Sea during three to five annual cycles from 2011 to 2017 were enumerated and identified to investigate changes in the timing, abundance and composition of microalgal export in relation to variations in snow and sea ice cover. Diatoms dominated the microalgal fluxes with different assemblages in spring-summer (April to August; Fragilariopsis spp. and Thalassiosira spp.) and autumn (September-November; Cylindrotheca closterium). Snowmelt or ice breakup occurred as early as late April (2016) and as late as mid-August (2013). The magnitude of the spring-summer diatom flux varied from ~0.05 to 500 mg C m⁻² (< 10⁵ to 1.25 x 10¹⁰ cells m⁻²) and was negatively correlated to snowmelt date (r² = 0.35, n = 12) and sea-ice breakup date (r² = 0.32, n = 12). The export of the ice-obligated algae Nitzschia frigida reflected the release of sea ice algae at the onset of snowmelt. Peak diatom fluxes were consistently observed shortly after seaice break-up. The percent contribution of microalgal carbon to the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux increased with the magnitude of the diatom flux. The magnitude of the relatively small autumnal diatom flux was not significantly correlated to freeze-up date (r² = 0.24, n = 10). Our results are generally consistent with satellite observations suggesting an increase in microalgal biomass and the development of an autumn diatom bloom in response to a longer ice-free season in Arctic seas. Variations at the regional scale in the snow and sea-ice regimes directly impact the timing and magnitude of microalgal production and its contribution to POC export in the Beaufort Sea. With global warming, the ongoing reduction of the sea-ice cover in Arctic seas will result in increased carbon fluxes to the benthos and, potentially, carbon sequestration at depth.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||21 December 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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