Les carences nutritionnelles des abeilles (Apis mellifera L.) en condition de pollinisation du bleuet à feuilles étroites (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) et de la canneberge (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.)
|Advisor:||Fournier, Valérie; Giovenazzo, Pierre|
|Abstract:||Commercial pollination in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) crops benefit the presence of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination and this pollination service represents 27% of the revenues from all seasonal beekeeping activities in Quebec (Canada). While providing such services, honey bees are often exposed to undiversified pollen sources that may contribute to nutritional deficiencies. In this study, we investigated four beekeeping management strategies (MS) and measured their impact on honey bee colony health and development. Experimental groups were: A) Control farmland honey producing MS (control MS); B) Blueberry pollination MS (blueberry MS); C) Cranberry pollination MS (cranberry MS) and D) Double pollination MS, blueberry followed by cranberry (double MS). Our objectives were to 1) monitor honey bee colonies during one year in different situations (according to the MS) 2) compare floral abundance and attractiveness of foraging areas to honey bees between apiaries using a Geographic Information System and harvested pollen, 3) analyze the protein and essential amino acid content of collected and stored pollen (bee bread) and measure the nutritional impact of pollination services on honey bee colonies and 4) compare honey bee colony health status and population development between MS during a complete beekeeping season. Our study reveals that honey bees providing blueberry and/or cranberry pollination services are exposed to a less diversified pollen diet than colonies located in a rich farmland environment. This was especially true for the cranberry crop environment. There was a significantly lower proportion of crude protein content in the pollen collected and stored by honey bees during provision of blueberry pollination services, which led to a smaller brood population. Regarding essential amino acids, many deficiencies were measured, however these were not always related to the management strategy. Globally, various essential amino acid deficiencies (harvested pollen or bee bread) were present at all three apiaries and four management strategies. The double MS significantly reduced colony weight gain, pollen harvest and brood population, and induced a significantly higher winter mortality rate. We also found significantly higher levels of Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Nosema ceranae in the double MS.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||13 December 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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