Régulation des variants d'épissage du cotransporteur rénal Na+-K+-Cl- de type 2 (NKCC2) : implication de la voie des kinases with no lysine (WNK)
|Abstract:||High blood pressure affects 40% of Canadians aged 56 to 65 and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The causes of high blood pressure are multifactorial and are often difficult to circumscribe. They include genetic factors, such as abnormalities in the function of renal ion transporters, and environmental factors, such as excessive dietary sodium intake, alcohol abuse, sedentary lifestyle, etc. In the kidney, the ultrafiltered NaCl load is reabsorbed by specialized ion transport systems. Of these systems, the Na-K-Cl cotransporter type 2 (NKCC2), is confined to the thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) of the nephron where it reabsorbs approximatively 20% of the ultrafiltered NaCl load. This transporter is inhibited by loop diuretics that are used clinically to treat certain types of hypertension. A change in the activity of NKCC2, either intrinsic or secondary to the effect of regulatory enzymes, has also been associated with blood pressure disorders. NKCC2 exists as three main variants that are produced through the alternative splicing of exon 4. These splice variants, named NKCC2A, NKCC2B, and NKCC2F, are identical to each other except for the residue composition of transmembrane segment 2 and the following connecting segment. Yet, they have different characteristics and roles along the TALH. NKCC2 is involved in cell volume regulation as it is activated by cell shrinkage. This activation is mediated (at least in part) by certain isoforms of the with no lysine (WNK) kinases including WNK1 and WNK3. However, the effect of these kinases on each of the splice variants is not known and the mechanisms that underlie the response to cell shrinkage are poorly defined. A better knowledge in these regards would allow us to better understand how NKCC2 is regulated and how it could be acted upon optimally towards maximal clinical benefits. The objectives of this thesis were as follows: 1) to determine the mechanisms by which WNK1 and WNK3 regulate each of the NKCC2 variant under hypertonic stress (Chapter 1) and 2) to identify residues in NKCC2 that sustain the response to cell shrinkage and differential regulation by the WNK kinases (chapter 2). The oocyte model of Xenopus laevis was used for this purpose. In Chapter 1, we showed that cell shrinkage produced its effect by increasing the abundance of NKCC2A and NKCC2B at the cell surface and that this effect was mimicked by WNK3, but not by WNK1. In addition, we showed that WNK3 increased membrane recycling of endocytosed transporters while cell shrinkage failed to produce such a response. Finally, NKCC2F was found to be insensitive to cell shrinkage and WNK3, suggesting that specific residues that are unique to this variant in exon 4 contributed to this differential response In Chapter 2, we looked at the roles of divergent residues between the variants to determine whether exon 4 played a role in the observed responses. Using mutagenic studies, we showed that residues at positions 230 and 238 played a major role in NKCC2 trafficking. In addition, we found that the residues of NKCC2F at these positions had the effect of promoting carrier retention at the cell membrane In sum, our findings have allowed us to better understand the mechanisms through which NKCC2 is regulated during cell shrinkage and by the WNK kinase-dependent pathway. Our findings have also allowed us to identify a new role for exon 4 in NKCC2 trafficking. With this gain of knowledge, we have found that strategies aimed at controlling the activity of NKCC2 could be based on altering the number of transporters at the cell surface.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 December 2019|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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