The role of structural pleiotropy in the retention of protein complexes after gene duplication

Authors: Cisneros Caballero, Angel Fernando
Advisor: Landry, Christian
Abstract: Gene duplication is one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms for the generation of functional diversity. When a gene is duplicated, the new copy shares all of the ancestral copy’s functions because they encode identical proteins. Therefore, the two proteins, called paralogs, will have the same protein-protein interaction network. However, in the case of the duplication of genes encoding proteins that self-interact (homomers), the new protein will also interact with the ancestral copy, introducing a novel interaction (heteromer) (Kaltenegger and Ober, 2015; Pereira-Leal et al., 2007). As these interactions can have different retention and functional patterns (Ashenberg et al., 2011; Baker et al., 2013; Boncoeur et al., 2012; Bridgham et al., 2008), it is important to understand better how these states are reached and what evolutionary forces favor each of them. In this thesis, I approach these questions by means of in silico simulations of protein evolution after gene duplication by working with high-quality crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank (Berman et al., 2000; Dey et al., 2018). The simulations show that the shared subunits and interfaces lead to these complexes having highly correlated evolutionary trajectories. Thus, the simulations predict that the preservation of only the two homomers or only the heteromer is not likely to happen often. Nevertheless, simulating evolution with selection on only one homomer shows that the neutral homomer is destabilized faster than the neutral heteromer. We compared these predictions against experimental results from the yeast protein-protein interaction network. As suggested by the simulations, the most abundant interaction patterns were either the formation of all three complexes (two homomers and one heteromer) or the formation of only one homomer, with motifs corresponding to two homomers without a heteromer or a heteromer without homomers being rare. Our results highlight the extent of heteromerization between paralogs in the yeast protein-protein interaction network, the underlying mechanisms, and its implications
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 11 December 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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