Impact de l'apiculture urbaine et du paysage urbain sur les abeilles sauvages

Authors: McCune, Frédéric
Advisor: Fournier, ValérieMazerolle, Marc J.
Abstract: Wild bees are currently declining at a global scale. One of the possible contributors to this decline is the competition with domesticated honey bees for floral resources. Urban beekeeping, a fairly new activity, is rapidly gaining popularity. Competition between domesticated honey and wild bees occurs in some agricultural and natural settings. However, the extent of such potential competition in urban setting is unclear, given that this environment imposes pressures on bees, both wild and domesticated, namely by the presence of impervious surfaces and urban heat islands. The objectives of this project were to determine how environmental parameters (abundance of honey bees, proportion of urban heat islands within 1500 m, and availability and diversity of floral resources) affect wild bee communities in Montreal, Canada. We hypothesized that: 1) competition with honey bees influences wild bees negatively, 2) that high floral resources support abundant and diversified wild bee communities and mitigate the negative impacts of competition with honey bees, and 3) that urbanization has variable impacts on wild bees depending on their functional traits. We tested these hypotheses using an extensive data set collected in 2012 and 2013 on 25 sites where bees were sampled with pan-traps. Floral resources were sampled along transects at 15 of the 25 sites in 2016 and 2017. We investigated community patterns and abundance after accounting for imperfect detection probability. We found no evidence of competition between wild and domesticated bees. However, results indicate mixed effects of the proportion of urban heat islands and positive effects of floral resources. Thus, cities potentially allow the coexistence of urban beekeeping and wild bees under moderate hive densities. However, it will be important to further investigate the competitive interactions between wild and honey bees as urban beekeeping is rapidly gaining in popularity.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 29 November 2019
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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