Évolution fonctionnelle et clinique d'individus ayant une amputation du membre inférieur

Authors: Beausoleil, Sarah
Advisor: Turcot, Katia
Abstract: The use of a new prosthetic limb following a lower limb amputation demands a reacquisition of the ability to walk, leading to different gait strategies. Although those strategies have been identified in the lower limb amputee (LLA) population, no studies have assessed their evolution following a return in the ecological environment. Indeed, decreased gait performances could be observed following the onset of fatigue and/or a decline of the daily active time. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the gait parameters of the LLA 1. Along a six-minute walk test (6MWT) following their rehabilitation and 2. Along a 6MWT six weeks following the end of the rehabilitation. It is hypothesized that the use of inertial sensors during the assessment of the IA’s gait parameters will allow the characterisation of their adopted gait strategies. We are expecting a deterioration of the gait parameters along a six-minute continuous walk and six weeks following the end of the rehabilitation treatments. To do so, inertial measurement units (IMU) have been used, as they are effective to quantify gait in different environments and populations, allowing data acquisition in “real-life”. Seventeen LLA performed a six-minute walk test (6MWT) at T1 and T2 with inertial sensors fixed on both feet to register their gait parameters (i.e. minimum toe clearance (minTC), loading ratio (LDr), flat foot ratio (FFr), swing width, step length, speed and cadence). A non-parametric ANOVA compared 1) the evolution of the gait parameters over a 6MWT and 2) the evolution of the gait parameters over T1 and T2. Post-hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed if a main effect was detected (P < 0.05). A performance improvement on the amputated limb (AL) between T1 and T2 has been observed (swing width, speed and cadence increased, added to a decreased stance phase). However, the minTC did not evolve proportionally to the speed. Physical capacity and walking abilities have increased between T1 and T2 in LLA population despite the inability to adapt their minTC (i.e. to increase the minTC proportionally to the gait speed) to an increased speed. It could be explained by a poor walking pattern using a hip hiking strategy including a high minTC and a small step width at T1 that improved (lower minTC than at T1) at T2. However, a small minTC is related to higher risks of fall. Therefore, the evaluation of the LLA’s gait parameters in clinical settings added to a home rehabilitation programme focused on the reduction of the risks of fall is primordial to ensure a secure return in the community.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 15 November 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/37224
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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