¿Luchas indígenas por la tierra en Yucatán? : estudio sobre neoliberalismo y apropiación de la identidad maya en la región ex-henequenera

Authors: Magana Canul, Rolando
Advisor: Doyon, SabrinaLabrecque, Marie-France
Abstract: Conflicts over the land defense and natural resource protection have increased significantly in Mexico with the neoliberal governments of the last three decades. The majority of these conflicts take place in indigenous-inhabited regions that are rich in biodiversity. Taking the above into account, this thesis focuses on the connection between contemporary struggles for the defense of common lands and the appropriation of Mayan identity in the state of Yucatán. The research is based on ethnographic method whereby I analyze two cases of struggle that occurred in Oxcum and Chablekal between 2005 and 2014. These ejidos are located in the periphery of Mérida, Yucatán's main city and capital, in the center of the region known as ex-henequenera. On the one hand, the thesis examines the structural factors linked to the emergence of land struggles in both ejidos, including the closure of the henequen agro-industry at the beginning of the neoliberal period, the 1992 agrarian reform, the implementation of PROCEDE and the recent imposition of urban-type projects, resulting in the overexploitation of common land. On the other hand, the work accounts for the reactions of the affected people in Oxcum and Chablekal to the loss of common lands. I provide a detailed account of how ejidatarios and residents of each ejido organized their own struggles. Such description spans a wide range of topics from how the group's identity was built, what supporting strategies were expected from the state authorities, how the alliances were formed, to how the collective actions were carried out. One of the findings of this study is that the mentioned struggles are highly challenging the mainstream economic framework of land and the natural resources. Moreover, unlike the idea that a mestizo" identity prevails in this region, the actors who make up the social basis of these struggles claim their right to the territory as members of an indigenous people, the Maya- Yucatec, by raising their demands within the jurisdiction of the agrarian authorities. Far from the simple adoption of global discourses or the elaboration of nostalgic narratives on the “indigenous past”, the thesis emphasizes that the basis of this re-appropriation of identity lies in the importance that the forest (Kax) still represents at the material and symbolic level for the vast majority of the modern Maya of the ex-Henequen region.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 9 November 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/37196
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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