Étude des composés impliqués dans la rétention des tanins des vins rouges de cépages hybrides interspécifiques cultivés en climat froid

Authors: Nicolle, Pamela
Advisor: Angers, PaulPedneault, Karine
Abstract: Vitis vinifera is the most cultivated grapevine species for wine production, worldwide. But in cold areas such as Quebec, Canada, most wine is produced from interspecific hybrid grape varieties (CHI) that better respond to harsh growing conditions such as cold temperature and high disease pressure. Red CHI wines are generally described as less astringent and more colourful than European V. viniferared wines, but those characteristics do not fully align with consumers taste and preferences. The low astringency of red CHI wine is largely attributable to differences between the respective chemical composition of CHI and V. vinifera berries. A better understanding of the molecules affecting tannin retention and composition of red CHI wines, and of the winemaking processes that affect their tannin profiles could provide solutions to impact their astringency and improve their competitiveness on the market. Three studies conducted on this topic as part of this thesis are presentedin this manuscript.The first study aimed at investigating the impact of the co-fermentation of white (WP) and red (RP) grape pomace on the tannin content of red wine, using the CHI varieties Frontenac and Vidal. The results showed that wines produced with WPcontained higher levels of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols and terpenes than wines issued from the RP treatment. Modifying the ratio of RP to WP during alcoholic fermentation modified the anthocyanin profile of the wines, sometimes resulting in lighter coloured wines. A ratio of 30% RP to 6% WP improved colour stabilisation without significantly affecting wine colour. The use of WP in co-fermentation with RP proved to be an interesting tool to modulate wine colour as well as its phenolic and volatile composition.The second study aimed at exploring the impact of different wine making treatments (pre-fermentative treatment of the must, fermentation with andwithout pomace, additionof enological tannins), alone or in combination, on the tannin, protein and pigment content of Frontenac wines. Wine protein removal by heat or bentonite addition did not improve tannin retention in wine. In contrast, fermenting the must without pomace significantly improved tannin retention, especially for polymeric flavan-3-ols (up to 27.8%). With or without pomace, the addition of enological tannins at a minimal rate of 3 g/L, was necessary to increase tannin concentration in Frontenac wine significantly.The third study explored the content and, to some extent, the molecular weight and structure of the polysaccharides from the CHI Frontenac and Frontenac Blanc, in comparison with wines from theV. vinifera variety Cabernet Sauvignon. Frontenac wines showed a higher concentration of total polysaccharides with more branched polysaccharides than wines from Cabernet Sauvignon. Results showed that significant differences exist between the polysaccharides content and structure of the studied CHI varieties and Cabernet Sauvignon variety. Those differences could contribute to the low astringency of CHI wines when compared with red wines from V. vinifera varieties. This project has brought new knowledge on the tannin, protein and polysaccharide content of red CHI varieties grown in Quebec and how they impact tannin retention in CHI wines. Understanding the chemistry of phenolic compounds and macromolecules in CHI wines made possible the development of new wine making processes adapted to the atypical biochemical composition of red CHI wine. As such, results from this study provide new venues to vary and improve the style and the quality of CHI wines and better meet consumers taste and preferences.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 28 October 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/37076
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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