Étude de l'adaptation des microorganismes aux environnements complexes par l'utilisation de code-barres moléculaires

Authors: Bleuven, Clara
Advisor: Landry, Christian
Abstract: Most organisms inhabit environments whose biotic and abiotic factors vary on a spatial or temporal scale. This environmental heterogeneity plays an important role in the evolutionary and adaptive processes. In this context, microorganisms are relevant models for testing evolutionary theories and are also subjects of interest in ecology. The main objective of this thesis is to shed light on the adaptation of microorganisms to complex, experimental and natural environments. As a first step, we gathered in a literature review the knowledge gained about the adaptive molecular mechanisms of microorganisms to environmental variations. The adaptive mechanisms are closely associated with the predictability of environmental changes and comprise memory, cellular anticipation, bethedging and evolutionary rescue. This chapter highlighted the opportunity to apply molecular engineering techniques and experiments under controlled conditions to study the adaptation of microorganisms to their natural environment and the effect of biotic interactions on their fitness. Thus, to meet this objective, we have optimized the measure of fitness in competitive experience in a non-domesticated yeast species, Saccharomyces paradoxus, by tagging with unique molecular barcodes more than 500 strains within the North American lineages SpB, SpC and SpC*. This collection has been shown to be functional for the Bar-seq method and allows to measure the fitness of individual strain as well as the average fitness of the lineages in different experimental conditions. Finally, in order to study the local adaptation in S. paradoxus and the effect of biotic interactions on the fitness of the SpB, SpC and SpC* lineages, we performed a competition experiment with the barcoded strains in a natural soil. We quantified the relative fitness of S. paradoxus strains and lineages and assessed the effect of the microbial community using control soil whose community was partially eliminated. To test the local adaptation of strains, the effect of their localization and their substrate on their fitness was analyzed. Our study shows i) a potential local adaptation in SpC whose local strains have a better fitness than the distant strains and ii) an effect of the microbial community on the relative fitness variation between the lineages. Thus, this thesis demonstrates the importance of performing experiments in natural microcosms in order to understand the which factors potentially influence the evolutionary history of microorganisms, such as biotic interactions and local adaptation in S. paradoxus.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2019
Open Access Date: 22 October 2019
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/37040
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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